<bdo id="yymqi"><label id="yymqi"></label></bdo><strong id="yymqi"></strong>
  • <bdo id="yymqi"></bdo>
    <bdo id="yymqi"><blockquote id="yymqi"></blockquote></bdo>
  • AGV導引技術的分析與對比 Analysis and Comparison of AGV Guidance Technology

        AGV作為輪式移動機器人(WMR-Wheeled Mobile Robot)的一個分支,自動導引是其主要的特征,也是企業在AGV選型是需要關注的一大問題。隨著各類技術的發展,AGV的導引技術也不斷提升。20世紀70年代,基本的導引技術是靠感應埋在地下的導線產生的電磁頻率,通過名為“地面控制器”的設備打開或關閉導線中的電磁頻率,從而指引AGV沿著預定的路徑行駛。20世紀80年代末期,無線式導引技術被運用到AGV系統中,例如利用激光和慣性進行導引,這樣提高了AGV系統的靈活性和準確性。當需要修改路徑時,也不必改動地面或中斷生產。這些導引方式的引入,使得導引方式更加多樣化了。

    AGV is a branch of wheeled mobile robot, and automatic guidance is its main feature, and it is also a major issue that enterprises need to pay attention to in AGV selection. With the development of various technologies, the guidance technology of AGVs has also been continuously improved. In the 1970s, basic guidance technology was based on sensing the electromagnetic frequencies generated by wires buried in the ground, and turning the electromagnetic frequencies in the wires on or off through a device called a "ground controller" to guide the AGV along a predetermined path. drive. In the late 1980s, wireless guidance technology was applied to the AGV system, such as the use of laser and inertial guidance, which improved the flexibility and accuracy of the AGV system. When the path needs to be modified, there is no need to change the ground or interrupt production. The introduction of these guiding methods makes the guiding methods more diverse.

        目前,常用的導引方式有:電磁導引、磁帶導引、色帶導引、激光導引、慣性導引、視覺導引、GPS導引、坐標導引等等。多樣的導引方式使企業在選擇AGV產品時往往無從下手。

    At present, the commonly used guidance methods are: electromagnetic guidance, tape guidance, ribbon guidance, laser guidance, inertial guidance, visual guidance, GPS guidance, coordinate guidance and so on. Various guidance methods make it difficult for companies to start when choosing AGV products.

        要選擇正確的導引技術,企業需要先了解各類導引技術的原理及特點。雖然AGV的導引技術多種多樣,但究其本質,可分為“固定路徑導引”和“自由路徑導引”兩大類?!肮潭窂綄б狈绞降?span>AGV只是簡單地沿著固定的物理線路行駛(如電磁導引、磁帶導引、色帶導引等),AGV上的導引傳感器通過測量AGV與理論路徑(電線、磁帶、色帶等)的偏移量控制AGV的運行方向;而“自由路徑導引”的AGV能夠根據導航及路徑規劃信息,自動選擇預設的“邏輯線路”行駛(如激光導航、慣性導航等),通過這種方式AGV導航傳感器得到的是間接信號,如,激光導航通過激光掃描器測出反射板的夾角和距離;慣性導航通過陀螺儀測出角加速度并配合地面標簽位置。目前集中主流的AGV導引技術原理及特點如下:

    To choose the correct guidance technology, enterprises need to understand the principles and characteristics of various guidance technologies. Although there are various AGV guidance technologies, their essence can be divided into two categories: "fixed path guidance" and "free path guidance". The AGV in the "fixed path guidance" mode simply drives along a fixed physical line (such as electromagnetic guidance, tape guidance, ribbon guidance, etc.), and the guidance sensor on the AGV measures the AGV and the theoretical path (wire The offset of the AGV, tape, ribbon, etc.) controls the running direction of the AGV; and the AGV with "free path guidance" can automatically select a preset "logical line" to drive (such as laser navigation, inertial Navigation, etc.), in this way, the AGV navigation sensor obtains indirect signals. For example, laser navigation measures the angle and distance of the reflector through a laser scanner; inertial navigation measures angular acceleration through a gyroscope and matches the position of the ground label. At present, the principles and characteristics of the mainstream AGV guidance technology are as follows:

        電磁導引

        電磁導引是一種較為傳統的導引方式,通過在AGV的行駛路徑上埋設金屬線,并在金屬線上加載電流產生導引頻率,AGV通過對導引頻率的識別和跟蹤,確定運行路線。電磁導引的優點是導引線隱蔽,不易污染和破損,導引原理簡單而可靠,便于控制通訊,對聲光無干擾,投資成本低;缺點是不易擴展或改變路徑,對于復雜路徑局限性大。

             Electromagnetic Guidance

              Electromagnetic guidance is a more traditional guidance method. By burying a metal wire on the driving path of the AGV and loading a current on the metal wire to generate a guiding frequency, the AGV determines the running route by identifying and tracking the guiding frequency. . The advantage of electromagnetic guidance is that the guide wire is hidden, not easy to be polluted and damaged, the guiding principle is simple and reliable, easy to control communication, no interference to sound and light, and low investment cost; the disadvantage is that it is not easy to expand or change the path, and it is limited for complex paths big.

        磁帶導引

        磁帶導引與電磁導引相近,不同之處在于采用了在地面上鋪貼磁帶替代在地面下埋設金屬線,通過磁帶感應信號實現導引。磁帶導引的優點是定位精確,靈活性比較好,改變或擴充路徑較容易,鋪設簡單易行,成本也較低;缺點是易受環路周圍金屬物質的干擾、磁帶易受機械損傷,且AGV智能按磁帶路徑行走,因此在路徑變更時也需要重新鋪設磁帶。

              Tape Guidance

              The tape guidance is similar to the electromagnetic guidance, the difference is that the tape is laid on the ground instead of burying the metal wire under the ground, and the guidance is realized by the tape induction signal. The advantages of tape guiding are accurate positioning, better flexibility, easier to change or expand the path, simple and easy to lay, and low cost; the disadvantage is that it is easily interfered by metal substances around the loop, the tape is susceptible to mechanical damage, and The AGV intelligently follows the tape path, so the tape needs to be relaid when the path changes.

        色帶導引

        AGV的行駛路徑涂漆或粘貼色帶,通過AGV自帶的攝像頭采集色帶圖像并進行信號處理實現導引。光學導引的優點是靈活性比較好,路線設置簡單易行;缺點是對色帶的臟污和機械磨損十分敏感,導引可靠性較差,精度較低。

               Ribbon Guidance

               Paint or paste the ribbon on the driving path of the AGV, and collect the image of the ribbon through the camera that comes with the AGV and perform signal processing to achieve guidance. The advantage of optical guidance is that it is more flexible and the route setting is simple and easy; the disadvantage is that it is very sensitive to the dirt and mechanical wear of the ribbon, and the guidance reliability is poor and the accuracy is low.

        激光導引

        激光導引是在行駛路徑安裝激光定位標致(有高反光性的激光反射板),激光定位標致通常安裝在運行路徑沿途的墻壁或支柱上。AGV上的激光掃描器發射激光,同時采集通過反射板反射回來的激光并進行信號處理實現定位和確定航向。優點是定位精準,路徑靈活多變,滿足多種現場環境;缺點是對環境光線、地面、設備反光面有要求,且反射板與AGV的激光掃描器之間不能有障礙物,不適合空中有物流影響的場合。

        依據同樣的原理,若將激光掃描器更換為紅外發射器、或超聲波發射器,則激光導引式AGV可以變為紅外導引式AGV和超聲波導引式AGV。

                Laser Guidance

                Laser guidance is to install laser positioning Peugeot (a highly reflective laser reflector) on the driving path, and laser positioning Peugeot is usually installed on walls or pillars along the running path. The laser scanner on the AGV emits laser light, and at the same time collects the laser light reflected by the reflector and performs signal processing to achieve positioning and heading. The advantage is that the positioning is accurate, the path is flexible and changeable, and it can meet a variety of on-site environments; the disadvantage is that there are requirements for ambient light, the ground, and the reflective surface of the equipment, and there can be no obstacles between the reflector and the laser scanner of the AGV. Logistics affected occasions.

               According to the same principle, if the laser scanner is replaced with an infrared transmitter or an ultrasonic transmitter, the laser-guided AGV can become an infrared-guided AGV and an ultrasonic-guided AGV.

        慣性導引

        慣性導引是在AGV上安裝陀螺儀,在行駛區域的地面上安裝定位塊,AGV可通過對陀螺儀偏差信號的計算及地面定位塊信號的采集來確定自身的位置和航向。慣性導引的優點是定位準確性高、靈活性強,適用性廣;缺點是成本較高且導引的精度和可靠性與陀螺儀的制造精度及使用壽命密切相關。

                Inertial Guidance

                Inertial guidance is to install a gyroscope on the AGV and install a positioning block on the ground in the driving area. The AGV can determine its own position and heading by calculating the gyroscope deviation signal and collecting the signal of the ground positioning block. The advantages of inertial guidance are high positioning accuracy, strong flexibility, and wide applicability; the disadvantage is that the cost is high, and the accuracy and reliability of guidance are closely related to the manufacturing accuracy and service life of the gyroscope.

        視覺導引

        AGV上裝有視覺傳感設備(CCD攝像機或視覺傳感器),在車載計算機中設置有AGV預定行駛路徑周圍環境的圖像數據庫。AGV行駛過程中,攝像機動態獲取車輛周圍環境圖像信息并與圖像數據庫進行比較,從而確定當前位置并對下一步行駛做出決策。視覺導引的優點是不需人為設置物理路徑,具有很強的柔性,隨著計算機圖像采集、儲存和處理技術的飛速發展,該種AGV的實用性將越來越強。

                Visual Guidance

                The AGV is equipped with a visual sensing device (CCD camera or vision sensor), and an image database of the surrounding environment of the AGV's predetermined travel path is set in the on-board computer. During the driving process of the AGV, the camera dynamically obtains the image information of the surrounding environment of the vehicle and compares it with the image database, so as to determine the current position and make a decision on the next driving. The advantage of visual guidance is that there is no need to manually set a physical path, and it has strong flexibility. With the rapid development of computer image acquisition, storage and processing technology, the practicability of this kind of AGV will become stronger and stronger.




    根據對各類AGV導引技術的分析,可以得到各類AGV導引技術的對比,如下表。

    According to the analysis of various AGV guidance technologies, the comparison of various AGV guidance technologies can be obtained, as shown in the following table.

    1 各類AGV導引技術比較

    Table 1 Comparison of various AGV guidance technologies

           有的企業認為,最先進的導引方式就是最好的。其實不然,不論是老技術還是新技術,都有其優缺點和使用的局限性,單一的導引技術無法覆蓋企業所有的應用需求,企業根據不同的場合,不同的使用需求,需要選擇不同導引技術的產品。例如,在經常有叉車或人員來往的路段上,不宜用磁帶導引;如果AGV的路徑經常變化的話,應考慮使用“自由路徑導引”的技術;有高空物流的生產現場,不宜適用激光導引的方式……企業在選擇時,需要綜合考慮應用需求、環境因素、成本等多方面的因素,因地制宜、靈活運用,才能是投資的效益最大化。

    Some companies believe that the most advanced guidance method is the best. In fact, it is not the case. Whether it is an old technology or a new technology, it has its advantages, disadvantages and limitations of use. A single guidance technology cannot cover all the application needs of enterprises. Enterprises need to choose different guidance according to different occasions and different use requirements. technology-driven products. For example, tape guidance should not be used on the road section where forklifts or people often come and go; if the path of the AGV changes frequently, the "free path guidance" technology should be considered; in the production site with high-altitude logistics, it is not suitable to use laser guidance The way of introduction... When enterprises choose, they need to comprehensively consider various factors such as application requirements, environmental factors, and costs, and adapt to local conditions and use them flexibly to maximize the benefits of investment.

    国产午夜无码精品免费看粉99_美女脱了内裤打开腿视频pppp_日本JAPANESEXXXX_欧美一级婬片AAAAAAA免费_高清