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  • 激光導引AGV系統 Laser Guided AGV System

    激光導引AGV系統

    Laser Guided AGV System

    激光導引AGV系統工作原理 
    AGV在其運行區域內,規定有通信區和非通信區。在通信區域內,AGV通過其車載通信裝置與系統控制計算機通信,報告其位置及狀態,并接受工作指令。在非通信區域內,AGV按照小車控制器中的預定程序獨立行駛,不與系統控制計算機發生聯系。
    其工作過程為:當接收到貨物搬運指令后,小車控制器就根據所存儲的運行地圖和AGV當前位置及行駛方向進行計算、分析,選擇最佳的行駛路線,通過驅動放大器自動控制AGV的行駛和轉向,到達裝載貨物目標點準確停位后,移載機構動作,完成裝貨過程。然后AGV起動,駛向目標卸貨點,準確停位后,移載機構動作,完成卸貨過程,并向控制計算機報告其位置和狀態。隨之AGV起動,駛向待命區域。接到新的指令后再作下一次搬運。

    AGV行駛過程中,車上的激光掃描頭不斷地掃描周圍環境,當掃描到行駛路徑周圍預先垂直設定好的反射板時,即"看見"了"路標"。只要掃描到三個或三個以上的反射板,即可根據它們的坐標值,以及各塊反光板相對于車體縱向軸的方位角,由定位計算機算出AGV 當前在全局坐標系中的X、Y坐標,和當前行駛方向與該坐標系X軸的夾角,實現準確定位和定向。 

    Working Principle of Laser Guided AGV System

    In its operating area, the AGV has a communication area and a non-communication area. In the communication area, the AGV communicates with the system control computer through its in-vehicle communication device, reports its position and status, and accepts work instructions. In the non-communication area, the AGV drives independently according to the predetermined program in the trolley controller, and does not communicate with the system control computer.

    The working process is as follows: after receiving the cargo handling instruction, the trolley controller calculates and analyzes according to the stored operation map and the current position and driving direction of the AGV, selects the best driving route, and automatically controls the driving of the AGV through the drive amplifier. After reaching the accurate stop position of the loading target point, the transfer mechanism moves to complete the loading process. Then the AGV starts, drives to the target unloading point, and stops accurately, the transfer mechanism moves, completes the unloading process, and reports its position and status to the control computer. Then the AGV starts and drives to the standby area. After receiving a new order, do the next transportation.

    During the driving process of the AGV, the laser scanning head on the vehicle continuously scans the surrounding environment, and when it scans the pre-set vertical reflector around the driving path, it "sees" the "road sign". As long as three or more reflectors are scanned, the AGV's current position in the global coordinate system can be calculated by the positioning computer based on their coordinate values and the azimuth angle of each reflector relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle body. The Y coordinate, and the angle between the current driving direction and the X axis of the coordinate system, realize accurate positioning and orientation.


    激光導引AGV系統系統功能
    1 調度管理
    1.1任務管理:對上位調度計算機下達的任務根據時間先后和任務優先級進行調度。
    1.2 車輛管理:根據當時AGV的位置和狀態,選擇距目標點最近(含各路段加權值計算結果)的空閑小車執行任務。
    1.3 交通管理:對管轄內的所有AGV能實進控制和管理。AGV嚴格遵循規劃路徑行駛,彼此獨立行駛和作業,能相互讓車。
    2 通信傳輸
    2.1 通過網絡與上位調度計算機保持聯系,接受任務調度,報告執行結果。
    2.2 通過無線電與各AGV保持通信聯系,指揮車輛作業。
    2.3 通過無線電通信,直接修改或更新每輛AGV的控制程序。
    2.4 具有遠程網絡通信傳輸功能。
    3 控制管理
    3.1 檢查車輛執行命令的過程。
    3.2 查詢車輛狀態。
    3.3查詢車輛交通管理信息,各點、段的占用信息。
    3.4 查詢數據采集系統信號。
    3.5 查詢全局參數的數據。
    3.6解除車輛阻塞,查詢各點的占用信息。
    3.7 查詢路徑的邏輯連接(通過各點間權值檢測),顯示、清空、重裝參數表。
    3.8 檢測無線電通信狀況。
    3.9 查詢與上位調度計算機的網絡連接情況。
    3.10 查詢車輛中途停止信息。
    4 圖形監控
    4.1 顯示系統范圍路徑圖,包括各個點和路段。
    4.2顯示系統范圍內每輛AGV的位置和狀態。常用狀態有:正常狀態、等待充電、手動狀態、急停狀態、路徑阻塞、小車丟失、小車停止、障礙物阻塞等。顯示各作業點、充電點的占用信息。
    4.3 可建立對圖形監控有不同操作權限的用戶或用戶組。
    4.4 可產生事件日志等報表。
    4.5 可根據定義縮放監控圖形,可根據需要關閉層。
    4.6 可通過定義車輛狀態顯示其信息。
    4.7 查看和設置輸入和輸出的狀態。
    4.8 查看命令緩沖區中的命令列表,了解AGV具體的裝卸貨地點。命令列表會根據收到的狀態信息不斷更新,可刪除某一項命令或改變局部參數。
    4.9 查看車輛的PLC狀態,跟蹤指定車輛,取消不在系統的車輛,釋放車輛之間的阻塞。
    4.10 系統具有事件管理功能??蓤蟾嬉馔馐录?,包括AGV等待充電時間過長;車輛阻塞時間過長;失去導航時間過長;任務被取消;裝卸貨站臺號無效或錯誤等??衫檬录^濾器,只顯示所需查詢的事件類型或時間段內發生的事件。
    4.11 可在圖形監控中直接下達任務(應急用)。
    5 模式選擇
    5.1 可根據生產實際需要設置多種管理模式。如集中出庫、集中返庫、正常工作和休息等。不同的模式具有不同的優先調度功能。
    5.2 可根據生產條件和AGV特性,選擇設置不同的優先級。如充電優先、時間順序優先、距離優先、品種優先等。
    6變更路徑及設定

    能夠根據用戶要求快速變更運行路徑及設定,包括路徑和點坐標移動、修改、增刪、定義內容的修改等。
    7 充電控制
    7.1 AGV具有智能化控制充電功能。當小車電池容量消耗到一定值時會自動發出請求信息。系統將即時安排到充電站進行充電。并在未完成工作任務之前,遵循任務優先原則。如沒有空閑充電站,會排隊等待,車輛不會接受新的任務

    7.2 系統通過信號及時更新充電的信息,能控制AGV停在指定充電臺位,吸合隔離開前,觸發充電。充電完成后,指揮小車斷開隔離開關,投入工作。整個過程完全自動化。

    Laser-guided AGV system system function

    1. Scheduling Management

    1.1 Task management: The tasks assigned by the upper scheduling computer are scheduled according to the time sequence and task priority.

    1.2 Vehicle management: According to the position and state of the AGV at that time, select the idle car closest to the target point (including the calculation result of the weighted value of each road section) to perform the task.

    1.3 Traffic management: Control and manage all AGVs within the jurisdiction. AGVs strictly follow the planned path, drive and operate independently of each other, and can yield vehicles to each other.

    2. Communication Transmission

    2.1 Keep in touch with the upper scheduling computer through the network, accept task scheduling, and report the execution results.

    2.2 Maintain communication with each AGV through radio and direct vehicle operations.

    2.3 Directly modify or update the control program of each AGV through radio communication.

    2.4 It has the function of remote network communication transmission.

    3. Control Management

    3.1 Check the process of the vehicle executing the command.

    3.2 Query vehicle status.

    3.3 Query vehicle traffic management information, occupancy information of each point and segment.

    3.4 Query data acquisition system signals.

    3.5 Query data of global parameters.

    3.6 Unblock the vehicle and check the occupancy information of each point.

    3.7 Query the logical connection of the path (through the weight detection between each point), display, clear, and reload the parameter table.

    3.8 Detect radio communication conditions.

    3.9 Query the network connection with the upper scheduling computer.

    3.10 Query the information about vehicle stop midway.

    4. Graphical Monitoring

    4.1 Display a system-wide path map, including individual points and segments.

    4.2 Display the position and status of each AGV within the system. Common states are: normal state, waiting for charging, manual state, emergency stop state, path blockage, car lost, car stop, obstacle blocking, etc. Displays the occupancy information of each operating point and charging point.

    4.3 Users or user groups with different operation rights for graphic monitoring can be established.

    4.4 Reports such as event logs can be generated.

    4.5 The monitoring graph can be scaled according to the definition, and the layer can be closed as needed.

    4.6 It can display its information by defining the state of the vehicle.

    4.7 View and set the status of input and output.

    4.8 Check the command list in the command buffer to understand the specific loading and unloading locations of the AGV. The command list will be continuously updated according to the received status information, and a certain command can be deleted or local parameters can be changed.

    4.9 Check the PLC status of the vehicle, track the specified vehicle, cancel the vehicle that is not in the system, and release the blockage between vehicles.

    4.10 The system has event management function. Unexpected events can be reported, including AGVs waiting too long to charge; vehicles blocked for too long; lost navigation for too long; missions cancelled; invalid or wrong loading and unloading station numbers, etc. Event filters can be used to display only the event types or events that occurred within the time period that you want to query.

    4.11 The task can be directly issued in the graphic monitoring (for emergency use).

    5. Mode Selection

    5.1 A variety of management modes can be set according to the actual needs of production. Such as centralized delivery, centralized return, normal work and rest, etc. Different modes have different priority scheduling functions.

    5.2 Different priorities can be set according to production conditions and AGV characteristics. Such as charging priority, time priority, distance priority, variety priority, etc.

    6. Change Paths and Settings

    It can quickly change the running path and settings according to user requirements, including path and point coordinate movement, modification, addition and deletion, modification of definition content, etc.

    7. Charge Control

    7.1 AGV has intelligent control charging function. When the battery capacity of the car is consumed to a certain value, the request information will be sent automatically. The system will instantly schedule to a charging station for charging. And before completing the work task, follow the principle of task priority. If there is no free charging station, it will wait in line and the vehicle will not accept new tasks

    7.2 The system updates the charging information in time through the signal, and can control the AGV to stop at the designated charging station, and trigger charging before the pull-in and isolation. After the charging is completed, the command trolley disconnects the isolation switch and starts working. The entire process is fully automated.


    激光導引AGV系統突出特點
    1 先進性
    使用激光掃描器定位,精度很高,一般≤±5mm;
    在布局描述方面,計算機支持程度更高;
    可與小車連續通信(無線電或紅處);
    有無線反饋控制性能;
    對干擾(頻率影響、斷線或失線等)不敏感;
    小車控制器采用積木化結構,全部參數軟件定義,具有強大的PLC支持。

    2 適應性
    在現有工廠設備基礎上作新的安裝可以和生產同步進行;
    設備的重組或擴充對停產和生產的影響??;
    不依賴地板表面(金屬板、導軌、木地板等);
    具有更復雜的運行路線;
    除反射板之外,不用其它輔助定位裝置;
    可以快速方便地改變運行路線。
    3 經濟性
    無需掘地埋線;
    無需投資建造高頻功率放大器;
    反射板成本低,尺寸小,數量有限,安裝簡便。

    Outstanding Features of Laser-Guided AGV Systems

    1. Advancement

    Using laser scanner positioning, high precision, generally ≤±5mm;

    In terms of layout description, the computer support is higher;

    Can communicate with the car continuously (radio or red);

    With wireless feedback control performance;

    Insensitive to interference (frequency influence, disconnection or loss of line, etc.);

    The trolley controller adopts a building block structure, all parameters are defined by software, and it has powerful PLC support.

    2. Adaptability

    New installations on the basis of existing plant equipment can be carried out simultaneously with production;

    The reorganization or expansion of equipment has little impact on shutdown and production;

    Does not depend on the floor surface (sheet metal, rails, wood floors, etc.);

    Has a more complex running route;

    Except for the reflector, no other auxiliary positioning devices are used;

    The running route can be changed quickly and easily.

    3. Economical

    No need to dig underground;

    No need to invest in building high frequency power amplifiers;

    The reflector has low cost, small size, limited quantity and easy installation.


    小結
    1 激光導引AGV系統充分發揮了激光技術的優勢,使AGV行走過程從傳統的分段(通常數米為一段)盲走后進行位置校正上升到連續(50ms/次)計算,即時校正坐標位置。因此,定位精度高,指標先進。

    2 系統功能強大,實時對AGV進行動態管理與監控,前臺響應快捷無誤,后臺數據詳盡準確。顯示了系統在管理思想、控制手段、現場經驗等方面的周密考慮。 

    3 在導引區域內,路徑修改、增刪、重新規劃、定義均可以快速地在計算機上完成,使用戶在調整生產設備,重組生產結構,技術改造和更新等方面無后顧之憂。

    4 激光導引AGV的路徑規劃靈活性非傳統AGV所能及,對于狹窄通道、巷道、縱橫交錯的行駛路徑更突出其優勢。

    5 激光導引AGV系統的數據管理是生產物流自動化基礎信息網的重要組成部分,為今后發展信息自動化管理系統創造了有利條件。

    Summary

    1 The laser-guided AGV system gives full play to the advantages of laser technology, making the AGV walking process from the traditional segmented (usually several meters for a segment) blind walking after position correction to continuous (50ms/time) calculation, and the coordinate position is corrected in real time . Therefore, the positioning accuracy is high and the indicators are advanced.

    2 The system has powerful functions, which can dynamically manage and monitor AGVs in real time. The front desk responds quickly and correctly, and the background data is detailed and accurate. It shows the careful consideration of the system in terms of management ideas, control methods, and field experience.

    3 In the guide area, path modification, addition and deletion, re-planning, and definition can be quickly completed on the computer, so that users have no worries in adjusting production equipment, reorganizing production structure, technical transformation and updating.

    4 The path planning flexibility of laser-guided AGVs is beyond the reach of traditional AGVs, and its advantages are more prominent for narrow passages, roadways, and criss-crossing driving paths.

    5 The data management of the laser-guided AGV system is an important part of the basic information network of production logistics automation, which creates favorable conditions for the development of information automation management system in the future.



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