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  • AGV小車結構原理 AGV Trolley Structure Principle

    背負式AGV搬運小車是針對自動化生產線和自動化物流而開發的系列產品,根據現在工業生產物料工業緊張的需求而研發的溫柔搬運智能小車,專為工業物料搬運而生的搬運設備,輕松運載車間物料,把貨物裝載在背負式AGV小車上,可實現貨物的輕松搬運,多臺AGV無人搬運車配合使用時可組成裝配線,代替流水線,形成柔性生產系統。利用磁條導引的作用,AGV小車通過識別地標選擇目的地,AGV小車可以根據設定的站點隨意放置物料。在車體上置放料架或周轉箱進行往復運動,通過磁條導引識別地標,進行選擇性站點???。此車亦可做單向AGV使用,最小轉彎半徑300mm,非常適用于空間不足且搬運頻繁的場地使用。

    The Knapsack AGV Handling Trolley is a series of products developed for automated production lines and automated logistics. It is a gentle handling intelligent trolley developed according to the tight needs of the current industrial production material industry. It is specially designed for industrial material handling. It is a handling equipment that can easily carry workshop materials , Load the goods on the knapsack AGV trolley, which can realize the easy handling of the goods. When multiple AGV unmanned trucks are used together, they can form an assembly line instead of an assembly line to form a flexible production system. Using the role of magnetic strip guidance, the AGV trolley selects the destination by identifying the landmark, and the AGV trolley can place materials at will according to the set site. Place a material rack or a turnover box on the car body for reciprocating motion, identify landmarks through magnetic strip guidance, and make selective stops. This car can also be used as a one-way AGV, with a minimum turning radius of 300mm, which is very suitable for use in venues with insufficient space and frequent handling.

    小車采用兩后輪獨立驅動差速轉向,兩前輪為萬向輪的四輪結構形式。步進電機經減速器后通過驅動輪提供驅動力,當兩輪運動速度不同時就可以實現差速轉向。

    The trolley adopts a four-wheel structure in which the two rear wheels independently drive differential steering, and the two front wheels are universal wheels. The stepper motor provides driving force through the drive wheel after the reducer, and differential steering can be realized when the two wheels move at different speeds. 

    AGV自動導引車由車體系統、動力系統、驅動裝置、轉向裝置、精確停車裝置、車載控制系統、行走系統、安全與輔助系統、運動控制器、通信裝置、移載系統、和導航系統等組成。

    AGV automatic guided vehicle consists of body system, power system, drive device, steering device, precise parking device, vehicle control system, walking system, safety and auxiliary system, motion controller, communication device, transfer system, and navigation system, etc. composition.

    1、車載控制系統

    車載控制系統是AGV的核心部分,一般由計算機控制系統、導航系統、通訊系統、操作面板及電機驅動器構成.計算機控制系統可采用PLC、單片機及工控機等。導航系統根據導航方式不同可分為電磁導航、磁條導航、激光導航和慣性導航等不同形式.通過導航系統能使AGV確定其自身位置,并能沿正確的路徑行走。通訊系統是AGV和控制臺之間交換信息和命令的橋梁,由于無線電通訊具有不受障礙物阻擋的特點,一般在控制臺和AGV之間采用無線電通訊,而在AGV和移載設備之間為了定位精確采用光通訊.操作面板的功能主要是在AGV調試時輸入指令,并顯示有關信息,通過RS232接口和計算機相連接。AGV上的能源為蓄電池,所以AGV的動作執行元件一般采用直流電動機、步進電動機和直流伺服電機等。

    1. Vehicle control system

    The vehicle-mounted control system is the core part of the AGV. It is generally composed of a computer control system, a navigation system, a communication system, an operation panel and a motor driver. The computer control system can use PLC, single-chip microcomputer and industrial computer. The navigation system can be divided into different forms such as electromagnetic navigation, magnetic stripe navigation, laser navigation and inertial navigation according to different navigation methods. Through the navigation system, the AGV can determine its own position and walk along the correct path. The communication system is a bridge for exchanging information and commands between the AGV and the console. Since radio communication is not blocked by obstacles, radio communication is generally used between the console and the AGV, and between the AGV and the transfer equipment in order to Optical communication is used for accurate positioning. The function of the operation panel is mainly to input commands during AGV debugging, display relevant information, and connect with the computer through the RS232 interface. The energy on the AGV is the battery, so the action elements of the AGV generally use DC motors, stepper motors and DC servo motors.

    2、車體系統

    它包括底盤、車架、殼體和控制器、蓄電池安裝架等,是AGV的軀體,具有電動車輛的結構特征。

    ①車體  包括底盤、車架、殼體和控制室和相應的機械電氣結構如減速箱、電機、車輪等所組成,是AGV自動導引車的基礎部分。具有電動車輛的結構特征和無人駕駛自動作業的特殊要求。車架常用鋼構件焊接而成,重心越低越有利于抗傾翻。板上常安置移載裝置、電控系統、按鍵、顯示屏等。

    ②車架  車架是整個AGV自動導引車的機體部分,主要用于安裝輪子、光感應器、伺服電機和減速器。車架上面安裝伺服電機驅動器、PCD板和電瓶。對于車架的設計,要有足夠的強度和硬度要求,故車架材料選用鑄造鋁合金,牌號為6061。其中6061質量比較輕,焊接性好。

    ③車輪  車輪采用實心橡膠輪胎。車體后面兩主動輪為固定式驅動輪,與輪轂式電機相連。前面兩個隨動輪為旋轉式隨動輪,起支承和平衡小車的作用。

    2. Body system

    It includes chassis, frame, shell and controller, battery mounting frame, etc. It is the body of AGV and has the structural characteristics of electric vehicles.

    ①The car body consists of the chassis, frame, shell and control room and the corresponding mechanical and electrical structures such as gearboxes, motors, wheels, etc. It is the basic part of the AGV automatic guided vehicle. It has the structural characteristics of electric vehicles and special requirements for unmanned automatic operation. The frame is usually welded with steel components, and the lower the center of gravity is, the more conducive it is to resist overturning. Transfer devices, electronic control systems, buttons, display screens, etc. are often placed on the board.

    ② Frame The frame is the body part of the entire AGV automatic guided vehicle, which is mainly used to install wheels, light sensors, servo motors and reducers. The servo motor driver, PCD board and battery are installed on the frame. For the design of the frame, there must be sufficient strength and hardness requirements, so the frame material is cast aluminum alloy, and the grade is 6061. Among them, 6061 is relatively light in weight and has good weldability.

    ③ Wheels The wheels are made of solid rubber tires. The two driving wheels at the rear of the car body are fixed driving wheels, which are connected with the hub-type motor. The front two follower wheels are rotary follower wheels, which play the role of supporting and balancing the trolley.

    3、行走系統

    它一般由驅動輪、從動輪和轉向機構組成.形式有三輪、四輪、六輪及多輪等,三輪結構一般采用前輪轉向和驅動,四輪或六輪一般采用雙輪驅動、差速轉向或獨立轉向方式。

    3. Walking system

    It generally consists of a driving wheel, a driven wheel and a steering mechanism. There are three-wheel, four-wheel, six-wheel and multi-wheel, etc. The three-wheel structure generally adopts the front wheel steering and driving, and the four-wheel or six-wheel generally adopts two-wheel drive, differential speed Steering or independent steering.

    4、移載系統

    它是用來完成作業任務的執行機構,在不同的任務和場地環境下,可以選用不同的移載系統,常用的有滾道式、叉車式、機械手式等。

    4. Transfer system

    It is an executive mechanism used to complete tasks. Under different tasks and site environments, different transfer systems can be selected. Commonly used are raceway type, forklift type, manipulator type, etc.

    5、安全與輔助系統    

    為了避免AGV在系統出故障或有人員經過AGV工作路線時出現碰撞,AGV一般都帶有障礙物探測及避撞、警音、警視、緊急停止等裝置。另外,還有自動充電等輔助裝置。

    5. Safety and auxiliary systems

    In order to avoid the collision of the AGV when the system fails or when people pass the AGV working route, the AGV generally has devices such as obstacle detection and collision avoidance, alarm sound, police vision, and emergency stop. In addition, there are auxiliary devices such as automatic charging.

    6、控制臺

    控制臺可以采用普通的IBM-PC機,如條件惡劣時,也可采用工業控制計算機,控制臺通過計算機網絡接受主控計算機下達的AGV輸送任務,通過無線通訊系統實時采集各AGV的狀態信息。根據需求情況和當前各AGV運行情況,將調度命令傳遞給選定的AGV。AGV完成一次運輸任務后在待命站等待下次任務。如何高效地、快速地進行多任務和多AGV的調度,以及復雜地形的避碰等一系列問題都需要軟件來完成。由于整個系統中各種智能設備都有各自的屬性,因此用面向對象設計的C++語言來編程是一個很好的選擇。在編程時要注意的是AGV系統的實時性較強,為了加快控制臺和AGV之間的無線通訊以及在此基礎上的AGV調度,編程中最好采用多線程的模式,使通訊和調度等各功能模塊互不影響,加快系統速度。

    6. Console

    The console can use an ordinary IBM-PC machine, or an industrial control computer when the conditions are bad. The console accepts the AGV conveying task issued by the main control computer through the computer network, and collects the status information of each AGV in real time through the wireless communication system. According to the demand and the current operation of each AGV, the scheduling command is delivered to the selected AGV. After the AGV completes a transportation task, it waits for the next task at the standby station. How to efficiently and quickly schedule multi-tasking and multi-AGV, as well as a series of problems such as collision avoidance in complex terrain, need software to complete. Since all kinds of smart devices in the whole system have their own properties, it is a good choice to use the object-oriented design C++ language to program. When programming, it should be noted that the AGV system has strong real-time performance. In order to speed up the wireless communication between the console and the AGV and the AGV scheduling based on this, it is best to use a multi-threaded mode in programming to enable communication and scheduling, etc. Each functional module does not affect each other, which speeds up the system.

    7、通訊系統

    通訊系統一方面接受監控系統的命令,及時、準確地傳送給其它各相應的子系統,完成監控系統所指定的動作:另一方面又接收各子系統的反饋信息,回送給監控系統,作為監控系統協調、管理、控制的依據。

    由于AGV位置不固定,且整個系統中設備較多,控制臺和AGV間的通訊最適宜用無線通訊的方式??刂婆_和各AGV就組成了一點對多點的無線局域網,在設計過程中要注意兩個問題:

    ①無線電的調制問題

    無線電通訊中,信號調制可以用調幅和調頻兩種方式。在系統的工作環境中,電磁干擾較嚴重,調幅方式的信號頻率范圍大,易受干擾,而調頻信號頻率范圍很窄,很難受干擾,所以應優先考慮調頻方式。而且調幅方式的波特率比較低,一般都小于3200Kbit/s,調頻的波特率可以達到9600K bit/s以上。

    ②通訊協議問題    

    在通訊中,通訊的協議是一個重要問題。協議的制定要遵從既簡潔又可靠的原則。簡潔有效的協議可以減少控制器處理信號的時間,提高系統運行速度。

    7. Communication system

    On the one hand, the communication system accepts the command of the monitoring system and transmits it to other corresponding subsystems in a timely and accurate manner to complete the actions specified by the monitoring system; on the other hand, it receives the feedback information of each subsystem and sends it back to the monitoring system as a monitoring The basis for system coordination, management and control.

    Since the position of the AGV is not fixed and there are many devices in the whole system, the communication between the console and the AGV is most suitable for wireless communication. The console and each AGV form a point-to-multipoint wireless local area network. Two issues should be paid attention to in the design process:

    ①The modulation problem of radio

    In radio communication, signal modulation can be done in two ways: amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. In the working environment of the system, the electromagnetic interference is serious, the signal frequency range of the AM mode is large, and it is easy to be interfered, while the frequency range of the FM signal is very narrow, so it is difficult to be interfered, so the frequency modulation mode should be given priority. Moreover, the baud rate of AM mode is relatively low, generally less than 3200Kbit/s, and the baud rate of FM can reach more than 9600K bit/s.

    ②The problem of communication protocol

    In communication, the communication protocol is an important issue. The formulation of the protocol should follow the principles of simplicity and reliability. A concise and effective protocol can reduce the time for the controller to process signals and increase the speed of the system.

    8、導航系統

    AGV導航系統的功能是保證AGV小車沿正確路徑行走,并保證一定行走精度。AGV的制導方式按有無導引路線分為三種:一是有固定路線的方式:二是半固定路線的方式,包括標記跟蹤方式和磁力制導方式;三是無路線方式,包括地面幫助制導方式、用地圖上的路線指令制導方式和在地圖上搜索最短路徑制導方式。

    固定路線的導引方式有電磁制導方式、光學控制帶制導方式、激光制導方式和超聲波制導方式。

    ①電磁制導方式

    ②光學控制帶導引方式

    ③激光制導方式

    ④超聲波制導方式

    8. Navigation system

    The function of the AGV navigation system is to ensure that the AGV trolley walks along the correct path and to ensure a certain walking accuracy. The guidance methods of AGV are divided into three types according to the presence or absence of guided routes: one is the method with a fixed route; the other is the semi-fixed route method, including the marking tracking method and the magnetic guidance method; the third is the route-free method, including ground-assisted guidance. method, use the route instruction guidance method on the map and search the shortest path guidance method on the map.

    The guidance methods of the fixed route include electromagnetic guidance, optical control belt guidance, laser guidance and ultrasonic guidance.

    ①Electromagnetic guidance method

    ②Optical control belt guide method

    ③Laser guidance method

    ④Ultrasonic guidance method

    9、載荷傳送裝置

    AGV的載荷傳送裝置為一平板,其作用為運輸箱體類零件到指定工位。主要用來裝載箱體類零件,運送物料等。

    9. Load transfer device

    The load transfer device of the AGV is a flat plate, which is used to transport the box-like parts to the designated station. Mainly used to load box parts, transport materials, etc.

    10、驅動裝置  

    驅動AGV自動導引車運行并具有速度控制和制動能力的子系統。主要包括電機、減速器、驅動器、控制與驅動電路等。驅動系統一般為閉環方式與開環方式,前者以伺服直流電機為主,后者以步進電機為主。

    10. Drive device

    The subsystem that drives the AGV to operate and has speed control and braking capabilities. It mainly includes motors, reducers, drivers, control and drive circuits, etc. The drive system is generally closed-loop and open-loop. The former is mainly based on servo DC motors, and the latter is mainly based on stepper motors.

    11、動力系統  

    蓄電池是目前AGV自動導引車使用的唯一電源。用來驅動車體、車上附屬裝置,如控制、通訊、安全等。  AGV自動導引車周邊設施使用一般工業電力,根據用途而有不同要求。如充電間頻率發生器、自動門、計算機室、通訊裝置以及工作環境所需裝置的動力等。根據車型、運行及載荷量而采用不同功率的蓄電他,一般都是蓄電池組合體。常用直流電壓為12伏、24伏、48伏及72伏。

    11. Power system

    The battery is the only power source currently used by the AGV automatic guided vehicle. It is used to drive the car body and accessories on the car, such as control, communication, security, etc. The surrounding facilities of the AGV automatic guided vehicle use general industrial power, and have different requirements according to the purpose. Such as frequency generators in charging rooms, automatic doors, computer rooms, communication devices, and the power of devices required in the working environment. According to the model, operation and load, different power storage devices are used, and they are generally battery assemblies. Common DC voltages are 12 volts, 24 volts, 48 volts and 72 volts.

    AGV是智能化的移動機器人,也是現代工業自動化物流系統的主要設備。

    AGV is an intelligent mobile robot and the main equipment of modern industrial automation logistics system.



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