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  • 海爾物流中心選址與布局規劃 Site Selection and Layout Planning of Haier Logistics Center

    關鍵字:配送中心、選址、因素、方法、經驗

    Keywords: distribution center, location, factor, method, experience

    海爾物流中心選址與布局規劃

     Site Selection and Layout Planning of Haier Logistics Center


    一、背景

    1、海爾集團的背景

    海爾是全球大型家電第一品牌,1984年創立于中國青島,現任董事局主席、首席執行官張瑞敏是海爾的主要創始人。目前,海爾在全球建立了21個工業園,5大研發中心,19個海外貿易公司,全球員工超過8萬人。2011年,海爾集團全球營業額實現1509億元,品牌價值962.8億元,連續11年蟬聯中國最有價值品牌榜首。海爾積極履行社會責任,援建了164所希望小學和1所希望中學,制作212集科教動畫片《海爾兄弟》,是2008年北京奧運會全球唯一白電贊助商。

    在創新實踐中,海爾探索實施的“日事日畢,日清日高”的“OEC”(Overall Every Control and Clear)管理模式、“市場鏈”管理及“人單合一”發展模式引起國際管理界高度關注。目前,已有美國哈佛大學、南加州大學、瑞士IMD國際管理學院、法國的歐洲管理學院、日本神戶大學等商學院專門對此進行案例研究。海爾的30余個管理案例被世界12所大學寫入案例庫,其中,“海爾文化激活休克魚”管理案例被納入哈佛大學商學院案例庫,海爾“市場鏈”管理被納入歐盟案例庫。

    2010年,海爾實施全球化品牌戰略進入第五年。海爾將繼續發揚“創造資源、美譽全球”的企業精神和“人單合一、速決速勝”的工作作風,深入推進信息化流程再造,以人單合一的自主經營體為支點,通過“虛實網結合的零庫存下的即需即供”商業模式創新,努力打造滿足用戶動態需求的體系,一如既往地為用戶不斷創新,創出中華民族自己的世界名牌!

    1. Background

    (1) Background of Haier Group

    Haier is the world's No. 1 brand of large home appliances. It was founded in Qingdao, China in 1984. Zhang Ruimin, the current chairman and CEO of Haier, is the main founder of Haier. At present, Haier has established 21 industrial parks, 5 R&D centers, 19 overseas trading companies around the world, and employs more than 80,000 people worldwide. In 2011, Haier Group achieved a global turnover of 150.9 billion yuan and a brand value of 96.28 billion yuan, ranking first in China's most valuable brands for 11 consecutive years. Haier actively fulfilled its social responsibilities, assisted the construction of 164 Hope Primary Schools and 1 Hope Middle School, and produced 212 episodes of the science and education cartoon "Haier Brothers".

    In the innovative practice, Haier has explored and implemented the "OEC" (Overall Every Control and Clear) management model, "Market Chain" management and "Rendanheyi" development model of "Every day is completed, and every day is clear and high", which has attracted international attention. The management community is highly concerned. At present, business schools such as Harvard University, University of Southern California, IMD International School of Management in Switzerland, European School of Management in France, Kobe University in Japan have conducted case studies on this topic. More than 30 management cases of Haier have been written into the case database by 12 universities around the world. Among them, the management case of "Haier Culture Activating Shock Fish" has been included in the Harvard Business School case database, and the management of Haier's "market chain" has been included in the EU case database.

    In 2010, Haier entered its fifth year of implementing its global brand strategy. Haier will continue to carry forward the enterprise spirit of "creating resources and making a good reputation in the world" and the work style of "Rendanheyi, quick decision and quick victory", and further promote the reengineering of informatization processes. Innovating the business model of "on-demand and supply under zero inventory" combining virtual and real networks, striving to create a system that meets the dynamic needs of users, as always, we will continue to innovate for users and create our own world famous brand of the Chinese nation!

    二、 配送中心選址的重要性和目標

    1、重要性

    為確保配送中心實現高效運轉,并為管理系統提供及時、準確的物流數據,配送中心的日常作業必須改變傳統手工作業的方式,建設一套高效和準確的數據采集系統。經過多方面的對比和考核,海爾集團最終選定北京南開戈德自動識別技術公司作為戰略合作伙伴。針對海爾配送中心的業務特點,借鑒國外先進制造企業的應用經驗,海爾集團決定在各地的配送中心,全面應用便攜式數據終端設備,在配送中心的入庫、出庫、盤點、移庫等作業環節,實現了高效、準確、及時的數據采集和管理功能。海爾物流整合以來,呆滯物資降低90%,倉庫面積減少88%,庫存資金減少63%。海爾建立兩個國際化物流中心,改存儲物資的倉庫為過站式(X-DOCKING)物流配送中心,從最基本的物流容器單元化、標準化、集裝化、通用化到物料搬運機械化,逐步深入到工位的五定送料管理、日清管理系統的全面改革,看板拉動式管理實現了柔性生產,每條生產線每天可以生產幾十個國家上百種規格的產品,實現了JIT物流。

    2、目標

    為實現其戰略目標,提高市場競爭力,海爾集團在物流管理上實行“零庫存”模式。在海爾,倉庫不再是儲存物資的水庫,而是一條流動的河,河中流動的是按單采購來生產必須的物資,從根本上消除呆滯物資、消滅庫存,使采購、配送和物流分撥流程實現同步,從而保證資金和生產優質循環。這一模式使海爾在金融危機中傲然挺立。為此,海爾更加重視配送中心的合理布局。在配送中心建立的過程中,開發區給予全方位、全過程服務,協助辦理注冊手續,免費提供辦公場所,及時解決倉儲用房,協調解決運輸問題,使中心的業務迅速開展起來。配送中心秉持海爾的服務理念,以熱情的心態對待客戶,以無微不至的關懷來服務客戶。他們以“即需即供,按需送達”為目標,區別于過去單純由車隊送貨的模式,主推加盟車模式,及時下單開貨,及時送達,做到“零庫存”,端對端,對客戶實現了零距離服務。一方面使客戶的需求得到極大的滿足,一方面使海爾的市場份額得到明顯的擴大。

    2. The Importance and Objectives of Location Selection of Distribution Centers

    (1) Importance

    In order to ensure the efficient operation of the distribution center and provide timely and accurate logistics data for the management system, the daily operation of the distribution center must change the way of traditional manual operations and build an efficient and accurate data collection system. After various comparisons and assessments, Haier Group finally selected Beijing Nankai Gold Automatic Identification Technology Company as its strategic partner. In view of the business characteristics of Haier distribution centers, and learning from the application experience of foreign advanced manufacturing enterprises, Haier Group decided to fully apply portable data terminal equipment in distribution centers around the country, in the operation links such as warehousing, warehousing, inventory, and warehouse transfer of the distribution centers. , to achieve efficient, accurate and timely data collection and management functions. Since the integration of Haier Logistics, sluggish materials have been reduced by 90%, warehouse space has been reduced by 88%, and inventory funds have been reduced by 63%. Haier has established two international logistics centers and changed the warehouse for storing materials into an X-DOCKING logistics distribution center. From the most basic logistics container unitization, standardization, containerization, generalization to material handling mechanization, gradually The five-set feeding management that goes deep into the workstation, the comprehensive reform of the Nissin management system, and the kanban pull-type management have realized flexible production. Each production line can produce hundreds of products in dozens of countries and hundreds of specifications every day, realizing JIT logistics.

    (2) Goals

    In order to achieve its strategic goals and improve market competitiveness, Haier Group implements a "zero inventory" model in logistics management. In Haier, the warehouse is no longer a reservoir for storing materials, but a flowing river. What flows in the river is purchasing according to the order to produce the necessary materials, which fundamentally eliminates sluggish materials, eliminates inventory, and enables procurement, distribution and logistics distribution. Synchronization of processes guarantees a high-quality cycle of capital and production. This model made Haier stand proud in the financial crisis. To this end, Haier pays more attention to the rational layout of distribution centers. In the process of establishing the distribution center, the development zone provides all-round and whole-process services, assists in the registration procedures, provides free office space, solves the storage space in time, and coordinates and solves transportation problems, so that the business of the center can be quickly developed. The distribution center adheres to Haier's service concept, treats customers with enthusiasm, and serves customers with meticulous care. They aim to "supply on demand and deliver on demand", which is different from the past model of simply delivering by fleet, and mainly promotes the model of franchised vehicles, where orders are placed and delivered in a timely manner, so as to achieve "zero inventory" and end-to-end delivery. On the opposite side, zero-distance service is realized for customers. On the one hand, the needs of customers have been greatly satisfied, and on the other hand, Haier's market share has been significantly expanded.


    三、 物流配送中心選址的影響因素和方法

    1、影響因素

    1、客戶分布  配送中心是為客戶服務的,首先要考慮客戶分布。對于商業配送中心,其客戶主要是超 市和零售店,分布在城市內人口較密集的地區,為提高服務水平,同時也考慮其他條件的影 響,故配送中心通常設置在城市邊緣地區。  準確掌握配送中心現有服務對象的分布情況以及未來一段時間內的發展變化情況, 因為 顧客分布狀況的改變、 配送商品數量的改變及顧客對配送服務要求的改變都會對配送中心的 經營和管理產生影響。  

    2、供應商分布配送中心靠近供應商,對貨源供給的可靠性高,庫存可以減少,但供應商一般離需求地比較遠,而且分布也比較分散,配送中心靠近供應商,對降低運輸成本是有利的,因為進貨的批量大。

    3、貨物分布和數量;這是配送中心配送的對象,如貨物來源和去向的分布情況、歷史和現在以及將來的預測和發展等。配送中心應該盡可能地與生產地和配送區域形成短距離優化。貨物數量是隨配送規模的增長而不斷增長的。貨物增長率越高,越是要求配送中心選址的合理性,從而減少輸送過程中不必要的浪費。           

    4、運輸條件;物流配送中心的選址應接近交通運輸樞紐,使配送中心形成物流過程中的一個恰當的結點。在有條件的情況下,配送中心應盡可能靠近鐵路貨運站、港口及公路。                      

    5、人力資源因素;配送中心需要不同層次的人員,一般屬于勞動密集型作業形態,用人較多,其工資待遇 應于當地工作水平相適應,配送中心選址應考慮員工來源和成本。因此,地區勞動力富缺程 度、工資水準高低、職業技能強弱等狀況,都是配送中心選址時應予以考慮的。因為這些情 況關系到招工的難易、工薪開支的大小、技術培訓的規模以及勞資間的關系。因此,在其他 因素相似的條件下, 勞動力資源情況如何, 也就成為配送中心選址時必須慎重考慮的問題了。

    6、商品流動;企業生產的消費品隨著人口的轉移而變化,應據此更好地為企業的配送系統定位。同時,工業產品市場也會轉移變化,為了確定原材料和半成品等商品的流動變化情況,在進行物流配送中心的選址時,應考慮有關商品流動的具體情況。           

    7、其他因素;如用地條件、地區或城市規劃、國家、地方的激勵措施、運輸與服務的方便程度、投資額的限制等。

    2、方法

    (一)定性分析法;定性分析法主要是根據選址影響因素和選址原則,依靠專家或管理人員豐富的經驗、知識及其綜合分析能力,確定配送中心的具體選址。主要有專家打分法、德爾菲法。定性方法的優點是注重歷史經驗,簡單易行。其缺點是容易犯經驗主義和主觀主義的錯誤,并且當可選地點較多時,不易做出理想的決策,導致決策的可靠性不高。           

    (二)定量分析法;定量的方法主要包括重心法、鮑莫爾-沃爾夫法、運輸規劃法、Cluster法、CFLP法、混合0-1整數規劃法、雙層規劃法、遺傳算法等。定量方法選址的優點是能求出比較準確可信的解。其中,重心法是研究單個物流配送中心選址的常用方法,這種方法將物流系統中的需求點和資源點看成是分布在某一平面范圍內的物流系統,各點的需求量和資源量分別看成是物體的重量,物體系統的重心作為物流網點的最佳設置點。

    3. Influencing factors and methods of location selection of logistics distribution center

    (1) Influencing factors

    a. Customer distribution The distribution center serves customers, and the distribution of customers must be considered first. For commercial distribution centers, its customers are mainly supermarkets and retail stores, which are located in densely populated areas in cities. In order to improve service levels and consider the impact of other conditions, distribution centers are usually set up in urban fringe areas. Accurately grasp the distribution of the existing service objects of the distribution center and the development and changes in the future, because changes in the distribution of customers, changes in the quantity of goods delivered, and changes in customers' requirements for distribution services will affect the operation and management of the distribution center. influences.

    b.  Supplier distribution The distribution center is close to the supplier, the reliability of the supply of goods is high, and the inventory can be reduced, but the supplier is generally far away from the demand area, and the distribution is relatively scattered. The distribution center is close to the supplier, which is important for reducing transportation costs. Favorable, because of the large quantity of incoming goods.

    c.  The distribution and quantity of goods; this is the object distributed by the distribution center, such as the distribution of the source and destination of goods, historical and current, and future forecast and development. The distribution center should be optimized as short as possible to the production site and distribution area. The quantity of goods keeps growing with the growth of the distribution scale. The higher the growth rate of goods, the more reasonable the location of the distribution center is required, thereby reducing unnecessary waste in the transportation process.

    d. Transportation conditions: The location of the logistics distribution center should be close to the transportation hub, so that the distribution center forms an appropriate node in the logistics process. Where possible, the distribution center should be as close as possible to railway freight stations, ports and roads.

    e. Human resource factors: The distribution center needs different levels of personnel, which are generally labor-intensive operations and employ many people. The salary and treatment should be adapted to the local work level. The location of the distribution center should consider the source and cost of employees. Therefore, the degree of labor shortage in the region, the level of wages, the strength of vocational skills, etc., should be considered when selecting the location of the distribution center. Because these situations are related to the difficulty of recruiting, the size of wages and salaries, the scale of technical training and the relationship between labor and management. Therefore, under the conditions of other similar factors, the situation of labor resources has become a problem that must be carefully considered when selecting the location of the distribution center.

    f. Commodity flow; the consumer goods produced by the enterprise change with the transfer of the population, and the distribution system of the enterprise should be better positioned accordingly. At the same time, the industrial product market will also shift and change. In order to determine the changes in the flow of commodities such as raw materials and semi-finished products, the specific circumstances of the flow of commodities should be considered when selecting the location of the logistics distribution center.

    g. Other factors; such as land use conditions, regional or urban planning, national and local incentives, convenience of transportation and services, restrictions on investment, etc.

    (2) Method

    a.  Qualitative analysis method: The qualitative analysis method mainly determines the specific location of the distribution center according to the factors affecting the location selection and the location selection principle, relying on the rich experience, knowledge and comprehensive analysis ability of experts or managers. There are mainly expert scoring method and Delphi method. The advantage of qualitative methods is that they focus on historical experience and are simple and easy to implement. The disadvantage is that it is easy to make mistakes of empiricism and subjectivism, and when there are many optional locations, it is not easy to make ideal decisions, resulting in low reliability of decision-making.

    b.  Quantitative analysis method; quantitative methods mainly include gravity center method, Baumol-Wolff method, transportation planning method, Cluster method, CFLP method, mixed 0-1 integer programming method, bilevel programming method, genetic algorithm, etc. . The advantage of quantitative method site selection is that it can obtain more accurate and credible solutions. Among them, the center of gravity method is a common method to study the location of a single logistics distribution center. In this method, the demand points and resource points in the logistics system are regarded as the logistics system distributed in a certain plane. The quantity is regarded as the weight of the object, and the center of gravity of the object system is regarded as the best setting point of the logistics network.


    四、海爾物流中心的相關數據及業務流程

    一、海爾國際物流中心的主要設備構成 海爾國際物流中心的主要設備構成

    1)、原材料自動化倉庫: 原材料自動化倉庫: (mm) 集裝單元貨物尺寸: 集裝單元貨物尺寸: 單元貨物尺寸 1200×1000×1560 mm) 貨位數量:12(排)×74(列)×11(層) 貨位數量:12( ×74( ×11 =9768 個 巷道堆垛起重機數量: 巷道堆垛起重機數量:6 臺 數量 巷道堆垛起重機載重量: 巷道堆垛起重機載重量:1000kg

    2)、成品件自動倉庫: 成品件自動倉庫: 單元貨物尺寸:2100×1200×2000mm) 單元貨物尺寸:2100×1200×2000mm) 尺寸 貨位數量:16( 貨位數量:16(排)×74(列)×8(層) ×74( ×8 =9472 個 巷道堆垛起重機數量: 巷道堆垛起重機數量:4 臺 數量 巷道堆垛起重機載重量: 巷道堆垛起重機載重量:1200kg 3、自動化倉庫的共用系統: 自動化倉庫的共用系統: 叉車: 機械搬運叉車 機械搬運叉車:若干臺 入出庫輸送機系統 1 1AGV(激光導引小車)自動搬運系統 AGV(激光導引小車)自動搬運系統 自動化控制系統 1套。

    二、自動化倉庫的業務流程及設備運用情況

    原材料由供貨廠家送至自動化物流中心。由叉車卸車后堆放在原料入庫暫存區。海爾質檢人員對到達的原材料進行檢驗, 對于檢驗合格的標準包裝物料,由叉車司機利用手持數據終端掃描包裝上的條碼信息并將條碼信息實時傳輸到后臺倉庫管理系統后。由司機駕駛搬運叉車將原材料運送到搬運叉車自動化倉庫的入庫暫存區。入庫輸送機系統獲得系統的入庫指令,原材料由輸送機進行運入,輸送機的原材料經外形尺寸檢測由計算機管理系統條碼識別及自動稱重后,在由計算機管理系統指揮調度環形穿梭車將貨物輸送到相應的環形穿梭車巷道堆垛機入庫站臺。巷道堆垛機根據計算機的指令將原材料運送到指定的貨位,運送到指定的貨位,系統自動更新庫存信息。

    4. Relevant data and business process of Haier Logistics Center

    (1) Main equipment composition of Haier International Logistics Center Main equipment composition of Haier International Logistics Center

    a. Automatic warehouse of raw materials: Automatic warehouse of raw materials: (mm) Containerized unit cargo size: Containerized unit cargo size: unit cargo size 1200×1000×1560 mm) Number of cargo spaces: 12 (row)×74 (column) ×11(layer) Number of cargo spaces: 12( ×74( ×11( =9768 number of roadway stacking cranes: number of roadway stacking cranes: 6 sets Roadway stacking crane load capacity: roadway stacking crane load capacity: 1000kg

    b. Automatic warehouse for finished parts: Automatic warehouse for finished parts: Unit cargo size: 2100×1200×2000 (mm) Unit cargo size: 2100×1200×2000 (mm) Size and number of slots: 16 (Number of slots: 16 (row) × 74 (column) × 8 (layer) × 74 ( × 8 ( = 9472 number of roadway stacking cranes: number of roadway stacking cranes: 4 sets Roadway stacking crane capacity: roadway stacking crane capacity : 1200kg 3. Shared system of automated warehouses: Shared system of automated warehouses: Forklift: Mechanical handling forklift Mechanical handling forklift: several in-out conveyor systems 1 set 1 set AGV (laser guided trolley) automatic handling system AGV (laser guided trolley) 1 set of automatic control system of automatic handling system.

    (2) The business process and equipment usage of the automated warehouse

    Raw materials are sent to the automated logistics center by the supplier. After unloading by forklift, it is stacked in the temporary storage area of raw materials. Haier quality inspectors inspect the incoming raw materials. For standard packaging materials that pass the inspection, the forklift driver scans the barcode information on the packaging with the handheld data terminal and transmits the barcode information to the back-end warehouse management system in real time. The driver drives the forklift to transport the raw materials to the temporary storage area of the automated warehouse of the forklift. The warehousing conveyor system obtains the warehousing instructions of the system, the raw materials are transported by the conveyor, the raw materials of the conveyor are identified by the barcode of the computer management system and automatically weighed after the external dimension detection, and the circular shuttle is commanded and dispatched by the computer management system. The goods are transported to the corresponding circular shuttle aisle stacker storage platform. The roadway stacker transports the raw materials to the designated cargo space according to the computer's instructions, and the system automatically updates the inventory information.


    五、海爾的方案研究

    海爾自動化倉庫的技術創新與收益

    (一)海爾自動化倉庫的技術創新,海爾自動化倉庫采用了多項技術創新,典型的海爾的創新項目是新穎的AGV系統。該系統使用了先進的激光導引方式、用了先進的激光導引方式、完善的小車調度管理軟件。AGV 具有結構緊湊、高速、行駛 路線自由靈活、充電時間短和持續運行時間長等優點,同時,采用該系統的柔性化,長等優點,滿足未來自動化倉庫出入庫能力增加的需求。 新穎的 AGV 運用了單雙托盤混合輥道式激光導引運輸車型,提高了 AGV 的使用效率;采用多重安全保護裝置,提高了 AGV 的安全性;用多重安全保護裝置,采用智能交通管理技術,上位計算機系統可以自動調度,具有遠程控制功能;采用了自動快速智能充電系統,提高了AGV 的使用效率,減少了 AGV 的配置數量。

    (二)自動化倉庫帶來的收益 ,海爾自動化倉庫的庫區面積僅為 148 米, 但它每天的吞吐量相當于40多個同樣面積的普通平面倉庫相當于平面倉庫近30 萬平方。庫內原材料4 小時可以送達車間工位,僅需要 19 名員工,其中叉車司機 9 名,其作業效率令人嘆服。自動化倉庫的使用對海爾物流的改革起到了很大的推動作用。

    1、提高了海爾物流的標準化運作水平,物流的標準化主要是指貨物單元及托盤的標準化。由于采用了標準器具,所以順利實現了搬運工具及物流作業流程的標準化。作業流程實施了標準化以后,大大的降低了入庫的驗收、清點、堆垛、抽檢、出庫等一系列程序作業的工作量,減少了人工成本。

    2、 增強了海爾物流服務能力; 自動化倉庫具有很好的靈活性和擴展性,剛開始設計立體倉庫時考慮的只是放空調,但是通過計算機系統管理后,發現其只占很少的庫容,海爾馬上把冰箱、 洗衣機、電腦全部都放進去,很快減少了這些廠的外租庫。整個效果非常明顯。

    5. Research on Haier's Scheme

    Technological innovation and benefits of Haier automated warehouse

    (1) Technological innovation of Haier's automated warehouse. Haier's automated warehouse has adopted a number of technological innovations. A typical Haier innovation project is a novel AGV system. The system uses advanced laser guidance methods, advanced laser guidance methods, and perfect car scheduling management software. AGV has the advantages of compact structure, high speed, free and flexible driving route, short charging time and long continuous operation time. The novel AGV uses a single and double-pallet hybrid roller-type laser-guided transportation model, which improves the use efficiency of the AGV; uses multiple safety protection devices to improve the safety of the AGV; uses multiple safety protection devices and adopts intelligent traffic management technology. The upper computer system can be automatically scheduled and has remote control function; the automatic fast intelligent charging system is adopted, which improves the use efficiency of AGV and reduces the number of AGV configurations.

    (2) The benefits brought by the automated warehouse. The warehouse area of Haier automated warehouse is only 148 meters, but its daily throughput is equivalent to more than 40 ordinary flat warehouses of the same area, which is equivalent to nearly 300,000 square meters of flat warehouses. The raw materials in the warehouse can be delivered to the workshop in 4 hours, and only 19 employees are required, including 9 forklift drivers, and its work efficiency is impressive. The use of automated warehouses has greatly promoted the reform of Haier Logistics.

    a. Improve the standardization operation level of Haier logistics. The standardization of logistics mainly refers to the standardization of cargo units and pallets. Since standard equipment is used, the standardization of handling tools and logistics operations has been successfully achieved. After the standardization of the operation process, the workload of a series of procedures such as acceptance, inventory, stacking, random inspection, and outbound storage has been greatly reduced, and labor costs have been reduced.

    b. Haier's logistics service capability has been enhanced; the automated warehouse has good flexibility and scalability. At the beginning of the design of the three-dimensional warehouse, only air conditioning was considered. Immediately put refrigerators, washing machines, and computers all in, and quickly reduce the rented warehouses of these factories. The whole effect is very obvious.


    六、選址的規劃設計

    選址依據有很多例如:競爭原則,交通原則,最低運費原則,以及其他一些原則,根據這些原則統籌兼顧,充分考慮,設置配送中心。目前,對于配送中心的選址海爾采用較多的是實驗方法和數學計算公式,這些方法和計算公式主要是根據最低運費原則得出的。

    海爾集團在全國各地建有42個配送中心,這42個配送中心構成了海爾集團服務市場和客戶需求的重要物流網絡。為確保配送中心實現高效運轉,并為管理系統提供及時、準確的物流數據,配送中心的日常作業必須改變傳統手工作業的方式,建設一套高效和準確的數據采集系統。在配送中心的入庫作業環節,數據終端從主機系統下載有關的入庫數據后,操作人員通過在數據終端上輸入相應的入庫單據編號,便可獲得詳細的入庫數據,具體包括入庫產品條碼、單位、數量等。操作人員通過對實際入庫產品條碼的掃描,并將實收數據與應收數據核對,實現了對入庫數據的高效采集和流程控制功能。最后,數據終端上采集的數據被上載到主機系統中,供物流管理系統作進一步的處理和分析。

    在配送中心的出庫作業環節,在數據終端下載主機系統的出庫數據之后,操作人員在數據終端上輸入相應的出庫單據號,便可獲得當前批次出庫的產品條碼和數量。依據數據終端中的出庫數據,操作人員可實現對出庫產品的掃描、核對和確認,從而實現了對出庫作業的嚴密管理。最后,數據終端的實際出庫數據被上載到主機系統中。在倉庫盤點作業中,在數據終端下載由主機系統生成的盤點數據之后,操作人員便司在數據終端的操作提示下,對庫存商品進行逐項掃描、清點和確認,待盤點數據上載到主機系統之后,便可獲得庫存的盤點差異數據。在庫位移動作業中,待數據終端從主機系統下載移庫指令后,操作人員便可在數據終端的操作指示下,將某個庫位的商品轉移到目的庫位,待所有移庫操作完成后,再將數據終端上載至主機系統,實現移庫作業的確認。

    此外,在海爾集團的物流管理系統中,所有的物流資源包括作業人員、物流托盤、物流容器和作業表單等,都通過條碼實現了數字化標識,并由數據終端掃描后實現數據采集,從而由物流信息系統實現了作業統計、流程控制、作業調度等功能,并實現了整個物流系統和資源的高效運作和管理。

    6. Site planning and design

    There are many basis for site selection, such as: competition principle, traffic principle, minimum freight principle, and some other principles. At present, Haier uses more experimental methods and mathematical calculation formulas for the location of distribution centers. These methods and calculation formulas are mainly derived from the principle of minimum freight.

    Haier Group has established 42 distribution centers across the country, and these 42 distribution centers constitute an important logistics network for Haier Group to serve the market and customer needs. In order to ensure the efficient operation of the distribution center and provide timely and accurate logistics data for the management system, the daily operation of the distribution center must change the way of traditional manual operations and build an efficient and accurate data collection system. In the warehousing operation of the distribution center, after the data terminal downloads the relevant warehousing data from the host system, the operator can obtain the detailed warehousing data by entering the corresponding warehousing document number on the data terminal, including the warehousing. Product barcode, unit, quantity, etc. The operator realizes the efficient collection and process control functions of the warehouse data by scanning the barcode of the actual warehouse product and checking the actual receipt data with the receivable data. Finally, the data collected on the data terminal is uploaded to the host system for further processing and analysis by the logistics management system.

    In the outbound operation of the distribution center, after the data terminal downloads the outbound data of the host system, the operator enters the corresponding outbound document number on the data terminal to obtain the barcode and quantity of the current batch of outbound products. According to the outbound data in the data terminal, the operator can scan, check and confirm the outbound products, thus realizing the strict management of the outbound operation. Finally, the actual outbound data of the data terminal is uploaded to the host system. In the warehouse inventory operation, after the data terminal downloads the inventory data generated by the host system, the operator scans, counts and confirms the inventory items item by item under the operation prompt of the data terminal, and the inventory data is uploaded to the host system. After that, inventory variance data for inventory is available. In the warehouse location moving operation, after the data terminal downloads the warehouse moving instruction from the host system, the operator can transfer the goods from a warehouse location to the destination warehouse location under the operation instruction of the data terminal, and wait until all warehouse shifting operations are completed. After that, upload the data terminal to the host system to realize the confirmation of the moving library.

    In addition, in Haier Group's logistics management system, all logistics resources, including operators, logistics pallets, logistics containers and job forms, are digitally identified by barcodes, and data collection is realized after scanning by data terminals, so that logistics The information system realizes the functions of job statistics, process control, job scheduling, etc., and realizes the efficient operation and management of the entire logistics system and resources.

    七、海爾配送中心存在的問題及其他企業的經驗借鑒

    1、存在的問題

    配送是現代物流的一個核心內容,是現代市場經濟體制,現代科學技術和系統物流思想的綜合產物,物流配送作為供應鏈的尖端環節和市場營銷的鋪助手段,日益受到重視。海爾意識到了物流配送的一些問題 :

    1)物流職能由于機構的分置而強制分割,導致成品轉移物流和銷售物流的脫節,各個部門為追求部門內費用的最優,而是總費用達不到最優。

    2)成品轉移物流中的物流網點受業已成型銷售網點的影響和制約,使物流網點分布散,規模小,難以實現批量運輸和倉庫利用率之規模優勢。

    3)由于海爾銷售通路決策,海爾銷售部門直接的面對眾多商場銷售計劃不準確,導致生產計劃和原料采購計劃無法按進度實行,給物流部門帶來巨大的壓力,使物流作業過度集中和過度分散,結果是一方面作業過度集中是非常成本增加,另一方面過度分散又使運輸中的零擔作業和混裝現象增多,運量打不到經濟送貨批量,同樣正佳了物流的成本。

    4)從銷售中心庫下訂單到貨物運到所需的前置時間較長,并且不固定,導致產地和銷地的庫存水平居高不下,倉儲成本和資金成本過高,嚴重影響零庫存的實現。

    5)在銷售預測生產的計劃性生產方式,卻又缺乏對經濟運輸批量的規劃,,不能從運輸和倉儲的交替損益中尋找總成本的最佳結合點。對此海爾物流在當初的物流重組階段,整合了集團內分散在28個產品事業部的采購、原材料倉儲配送、成品倉儲配送的職能,并率先提出了三個JI(Just in time)的管理,即JIT采購;J1丁原材料配送、JIT成品分撥物流。通過他們,海爾物流形成了直接面對市場的、完整的以信息流支撐的物流、商流、資金流的同步流程體系,獲得了基于時間的競爭優勢,以時間消滅空間,達到以最低的物流總成本向客戶提供最大的附加價值服務。

    2、經驗借鑒

       在供應鏈管理階段,海爾物流創新性地提出了“一流三網”的管理模式。海爾集團自1999年開始,進行以“市場鏈”為紐帶的業務流程再造,以定單信息流為中心,帶動物流、商流、資金流的運轉。海爾物流的“一流三網”充分體現了現代物流的特征:“一流”是以定單信息流為中心;“三網”分別是全球供應鏈資源網絡、全球配送資源網絡和計算機信息網絡;“三網”同步流動,為定單信息流的增值提供支持。 

       海爾物流的信息化技術一直處于不斷革新、改進的過程之中。建立ERP系統是海爾實現高度信息化的第一步。在成功實施ERP系統的基礎上,海爾建立了SRM(招標、供應商關系管理),B2B(訂單互動、庫存協調)、掃描系統(收發貨、投入產出、倉庫管理、電子標簽)、訂價支持(訂價方案的審批)、模具生命周期管理、新品網上流轉(新品開發各個環節的控制)等信息系統,并使之與ERP系統連接起來。這樣。用戶的信息可同步轉化為企業內部的信息,實現以信息替代庫存,零資金占用。 

       在基礎設施方面,以強大的網絡技術為依托,自2002年開始逐漸推廣條碼掃描和RF技術在物流中的使用,以解決成品物流過程中面臨的準確率、實時性、高效性和問題可追性的要求。

    海爾物流在發展企業物流的同時,成功地向物流企業進行了轉變,以客戶為中心,為客戶提供增值服務。目前海爾第三方物流服務領域正迅速拓展至I丁業、食品業、制造業等多個行業,并取得一定成效。另一方面,在不斷拓展第三方物流業務的同時,海爾開始提供第四方物流服務,同第三方物流相比,第四方物流服務的內容更多,覆蓋的地區更廣,更能開拓新的服務領域,提供更多的增值服務。它幫助客戶規劃、實施和執行供應鏈的程序,并先后為制造業、航空業等領域的企業提供了物流增值服務,現在來看物流業務已經為海爾一個新的經濟增長點。

    美國Symbol公司的SPTl800系列便攜式數據終端作為集成條碼掃描和移動計算功能的高科技產品,產品堅固耐用,便于攜帶,可擺脫線纜的束縛。它在物流作業和數據采集方面具有獨特的優勢,目前已在海爾各地的配送中心取得了良好的應用效果。

    在配送中心的入庫作業環節,數據終端從主機系統下載有關的入庫數據后,操作人員通過在數據終端上輸入相應的入庫單據編號,便可獲得詳細的入庫數據,具體包括入庫產品條碼、單位、數量等。操作人員通過對實際入庫產品條碼的掃描,并將實收數據與應收數據核對,實現了對入庫數據的高效采集和流程控制功能。最后,數據終端上采集的數據被上載到主機系統中,供物流管理系統作進一步的處理和分析。

    在配送中心的出庫作業環節,在數據終端下載主機系統的出庫數據之后,操作人員在數據終端上輸入相應的出庫單據號,便可獲得當前批次出庫的產品條碼和數量。依據數據終端中的出庫數據,操作人員可實現對出庫產品的掃描、核對和確認,從而實現了對出庫作業的嚴密管理。最后,數據終端的實際出庫數據被上載到主機系統中。

    在倉庫盤點作業中,在數據終端下載由主機系統生成的盤點數據之后,操作人員便司在數據終端的操作提示下,對庫存商品進行逐項掃描、清點和確認,待盤點數據上載到主機系統之后,便可獲得庫存的盤點差異數據。

    在庫位移動作業中,待數據終端從主機系統下載移庫指令后,操作人員便可在數據終端的操作指示下,將某個庫位的商品轉移到目的庫位,待所有移庫操作完成后,再將數據終端上載至主機系統,實現移庫作業的確認。

    此外,在海爾集團的物流管理系統中,所有的物流資源包括作業人員、物流托盤、物流容器和作業表單等,都通過條碼實現了數字化標識,并由數據終端掃描后實現數據采集,從而由物流信息系統實現了作業統計、流程控制、作業調度等功能,并實現了整個物流系統和資源的高效運作和管理。

    7. Problems existing in Haier distribution center and experience of other enterprises for reference

    (1)  Existing problems

    Distribution is a core content of modern logistics, and is a comprehensive product of modern market economy system, modern science and technology and systematic logistics thought. Haier has realized some problems in logistics and distribution:

    a. The logistics function is forcibly divided due to the separation of institutions, which leads to the disconnection of finished product transfer logistics and sales logistics. In order to pursue the optimal cost of each department, the total cost cannot be optimized.

    b. The logistics outlets in the finished product transfer logistics are affected and restricted by the established sales outlets, making the logistics outlets scattered and small in scale, making it difficult to achieve the scale advantage of bulk transportation and warehouse utilization.

    c. Due to Haier's sales channel decision, Haier's sales department was directly faced with inaccurate sales plans in many shopping malls, resulting in the inability to implement production plans and raw material procurement plans on schedule, which brought huge pressure to the logistics department, resulting in excessive concentration of logistics operations. Excessive dispersion results in that, on the one hand, the over-concentration of operations is a very high cost increase, and on the other hand, the excessive dispersion increases the phenomenon of less-than-truckload operations and mixed loading in transportation, and the transportation volume cannot reach the economical delivery volume, which also increases the cost of logistics.

    d. The lead time required from placing an order in the sales center warehouse to the delivery of the goods is long and not fixed, resulting in high inventory levels in the origin and sales areas, and high storage costs and capital costs, which seriously affects zero inventory. realization.

    e. In the planned production method of sales forecast production, but lack of planning for economic transportation batches, it is impossible to find the best combination of total cost from the alternate profit and loss of transportation and storage. In this regard, Haier Logistics integrated the functions of procurement, raw material warehousing and distribution, and finished product warehousing and distribution scattered in 28 product divisions within the group, and took the lead in proposing three managements of just in time. , namely JIT procurement; J1 D raw material distribution, JIT finished product distribution logistics. Through them, Haier Logistics has formed a complete synchronous process system of logistics, business flow and capital flow directly facing the market and supported by information flow, obtained a time-based competitive advantage, eliminated space with time, and achieved the lowest logistics. Total cost to provide maximum value-added services to customers.

    (2) Learning from experience

       In the supply chain management stage, Haier Logistics innovatively proposed the management model of "first-class three networks". Since 1999, Haier Group has carried out business process reengineering with "market chain" as the link, centering on the flow of order information to drive the operation of logistics, business flow and capital flow. Haier Logistics' "first-class three networks" fully embody the characteristics of modern logistics: "first-class" is centered on order information flow; "three networks" are global supply chain resource network, global distribution resource network and computer information network; "three networks" Net” synchronous flow, providing support for the value-added order information flow.

       The information technology of Haier Logistics has been in the process of continuous innovation and improvement. The establishment of ERP system is the first step for Haier to achieve a high degree of informatization. On the basis of the successful implementation of ERP system, Haier has established SRM (bidding, supplier relationship management), B2B (order interaction, inventory coordination), scanning system (receipt and delivery, input and output, warehouse management, electronic label), ordering Price support (approval of pricing plan), mold life cycle management, online circulation of new products (control of all aspects of new product development) and other information systems, and connect them with the ERP system. so. The user's information can be synchronously transformed into the internal information of the enterprise, realizing the replacement of inventory with information and zero capital occupation.

       In terms of infrastructure, relying on powerful network technology, since 2002, the use of barcode scanning and RF technology in logistics has been gradually promoted to solve the accuracy, real-time, efficiency and traceability of problems faced in the process of finished product logistics. sexual demands.

    While developing enterprise logistics, Haier Logistics has successfully transformed itself into a logistics enterprise, focusing on customers and providing value-added services to customers. At present, Haier's third-party logistics services are rapidly expanding to various industries such as IT, food, and manufacturing, and have achieved certain results. On the other hand, while continuously expanding the third-party logistics business, Haier began to provide fourth-party logistics services. Compared with third-party logistics, fourth-party logistics services have more content, cover a wider area, and are more able to develop new provide more value-added services. It helps customers plan, implement and execute supply chain procedures, and has successively provided logistics value-added services for enterprises in the manufacturing, aviation and other fields. Now, logistics business has become a new economic growth point for Haier.

    The SPTl800 series of portable data terminals from the American company Symbol is a high-tech product that integrates barcode scanning and mobile computing functions. It has unique advantages in logistics operations and data collection, and has achieved good application results in distribution centers around Haier.

    In the warehousing operation of the distribution center, after the data terminal downloads the relevant warehousing data from the host system, the operator can obtain the detailed warehousing data by entering the corresponding warehousing document number on the data terminal, including the warehousing. Product barcode, unit, quantity, etc. The operator realizes the efficient collection and process control functions of the warehouse data by scanning the barcode of the actual warehouse product and checking the actual receipt data with the receivable data. Finally, the data collected on the data terminal is uploaded to the host system for further processing and analysis by the logistics management system.

    In the outbound operation of the distribution center, after the data terminal downloads the outbound data of the host system, the operator enters the corresponding outbound document number on the data terminal to obtain the barcode and quantity of the current batch of outbound products. According to the outbound data in the data terminal, the operator can scan, check and confirm the outbound products, thus realizing the strict management of the outbound operation. Finally, the actual outbound data of the data terminal is uploaded to the host system.

    In the warehouse inventory operation, after the data terminal downloads the inventory data generated by the host system, the operator scans, counts and confirms the inventory items item by item under the operation prompt of the data terminal, and the inventory data is uploaded to the host system. After that, inventory variance data for inventory is available.

    In the warehouse location moving operation, after the data terminal downloads the warehouse moving instruction from the host system, the operator can transfer the goods from a warehouse location to the destination warehouse location under the operation instruction of the data terminal, and wait until all warehouse shifting operations are completed. After that, upload the data terminal to the host system to realize the confirmation of the moving library.

    In addition, in Haier Group's logistics management system, all logistics resources, including operators, logistics pallets, logistics containers and job forms, are digitally identified by barcodes, and data collection is realized after scanning by data terminals, so that logistics The information system realizes the functions of job statistics, process control, job scheduling, etc., and realizes the efficient operation and management of the entire logistics system and resources.


    八、總結

    海爾在整個的物流運作水平處于我國的先進地位,但是也存在著許多的困難和問題,對于這些困難和問題,海爾應該進行足夠的重視,才能使企業的整個物流運作處于先進水平。

    同時,海爾也需要不斷的學習,向國內外一些先進的物流運作中心學習,“取其精華。去其糟粕”這對海爾為來的發展會有很大的幫助。

    海爾還有一段很長的路要走,在這個過程中,需要一路學習,敢于接受外界以及自身所帶來的挑戰與機遇,這將成為海爾未來道路上一段重要的歷程,也將是海爾通往下個新的發展方向的重要財富。

    8. Summary

    Haier's overall logistics operation level is in an advanced position in my country, but there are also many difficulties and problems. For these difficulties and problems, Haier should pay enough attention to make the enterprise's entire logistics operation at an advanced level.

    At the same time, Haier also needs to continue to learn, learn from some advanced logistics operation centers at home and abroad, "take the essence and get rid of the dross", which will be of great help to Haier's future development.

    Haier still has a long way to go. In this process, it is necessary to learn along the way and dare to accept the challenges and opportunities brought by the outside world and itself. This will become an important journey on Haier's future road, and it will also be an important milestone for Haier Tong. An important asset for the next new development direction.




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