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  • AGV移載裝置 AGV Transfer Device

    AGV用移載裝置來裝卸貨物,即接受和卸下載荷。

    AGVs use transfer devices to load and unload goods, that is, to accept and unload loads.

    常見的AGV裝卸方式:被動裝卸、主動裝卸:

    Common AGV loading and unloading methods: passive loading and unloading, active loading and unloading.

    (一)、被動裝卸方式的小車自己不具有完整的裝卸功能,而是采用助卸方式,即配合裝卸站或接收物料方的裝卸裝置自動裝卸。


    常見的助卸裝置有滾柱式臺面和升降式臺面兩種:

    (a)、采用升降式臺面的升降臺下設有液壓升降機構,高度可以自由調節。為了順利移載,AGV必須精確停車才能與站臺自動交換。

    (b)、采用滾柱式臺面的環境要求是站臺必須帶有動力傳動輥道,AGV??吭谡九_邊,AGV上的輥道和站臺上的輥道對接之后同步動作,實現貨物移送。

    1. The passive loading and unloading trolley does not have a complete loading and unloading function, but adopts the auxiliary unloading method, that is, it is automatically loaded and unloaded with the loading and unloading device of the loading and unloading station or the receiving party.

    Common unloading devices include roller table and lift table:

    a. There is a hydraulic lifting mechanism under the lifting table using the lifting table, and the height can be adjusted freely. In order to transfer the load smoothly, the AGV must stop precisely to automatically exchange with the platform.

    b. The environmental requirement of using a roller table is that the platform must have a power transmission roller table, the AGV is parked on the side of the platform, and the roller table on the AGV and the roller table on the platform are connected and act synchronously to realize the transfer of goods.



    AGV滾柱式臺面和升降式臺面  AGV Roller Table and Lift Table

    (1)、推挽式:AGV裝卸貨物通過自身的推挽機構與地面的無動力輥道站臺實現。作業時,AGV??吭谡九_側邊,通過推挽機構左、右側向移動伸臂推拉完成裝卸貨物,貨物在AGV輥道與地面站臺輥道之間滾動,載荷轉移巧妙,地面站臺不需要連鎖信號和動力傳動,適合同高度站臺之間的搬運場合。但對作業點的定位精度以及與移載系統關聯的部分要求較高,特別對多輛車和多個站臺的場合,要保證其可靠性難度較大。

    推挽式常用于平面托盤的物料搬運,如果是歐式托盤或其它物體,要注意滿足能滾動和可推挽的條件。


    (2)、輥道式:AGV裝卸貨物是通過自身輥道與地面站臺輥道對接之后實現。地面站臺是帶動力傳動的輥道,AGV準確??吭诘孛嬲九_側邊,車上和站臺上的輥道對接無誤后同步傳動完成移載。故要求滾動體規范,傳動高度一致,傳動速度吻合??勺?、右雙向裝卸托盤貨物,作業效率高,AGV安全性好。移載機構與原理簡單,可靠性好,但站臺需要有連鎖信號和動力傳動。適合于站臺數少,車間或庫區入、出口RS/AS之間往返作業。輥道式常用于可滾動的各式托盤或物體的移載場合,包入括大的紙箱、木箱、板材、集裝箱等,特別適用于重載物料的搬運。


    (3)、鏈式 :除了貨物傳動方式是鏈條或鏈板不同外,其余與輥道式類似。鏈式主要適用于不能滾動物體的移載場合。


    (4)、帶式 :除了貨物傳動方式是傳送帶不同外,其余與輥道式類似。帶式主要適用于較輕較小物料的移載場合,如紙盒、紙箱、各式袋裝品等。 

    (1) Push-pull type: AGV loading and unloading goods is realized through its own push-pull mechanism and an unpowered roller platform on the ground. During operation, the AGV is parked on the side of the platform, and the outrigger is pushed and pulled left and right by the push-pull mechanism to complete the loading and unloading of goods. The goods roll between the AGV roller table and the ground platform roller table, and the load transfer is ingenious. Signal and power transmission, suitable for handling occasions between platforms of the same height. However, the positioning accuracy of the operating point and the parts related to the transfer system are relatively high, especially in the case of multiple vehicles and multiple platforms, it is difficult to ensure its reliability.

    The push-pull type is often used for material handling on flat pallets. If it is a European-style pallet or other objects, pay attention to meet the conditions of rolling and push-pull.

    (2) Roller table type: AGV loading and unloading goods is realized after docking with its own roller table and the ground platform roller table. The ground platform is a roller table with power transmission. The AGV is accurately parked on the side of the ground platform. After the vehicle and the roller table on the platform are connected correctly, the synchronous transmission completes the transfer. Therefore, the rolling elements are required to be standardized, the transmission height is consistent, and the transmission speed is consistent. It can load and unload pallet goods in left and right directions, with high operation efficiency and good AGV safety. The transfer mechanism and principle are simple and reliable, but the platform needs to have chain signals and power transmission. It is suitable for the round-trip operation between the entry and exit RS/AS of the workshop or warehouse area with a small number of stations. The roller type is often used in the transfer of various kinds of pallets or objects that can be rolled, including large cartons, wooden boxes, plates, containers, etc. It is especially suitable for the handling of heavy-duty materials.

    (3) Chain type: Except that the transmission mode of goods is different by chain or chain plate, the rest is similar to the roller type. The chain type is mainly suitable for transfer occasions where objects cannot be rolled.

    (4) Belt type: Except that the conveying mode of the goods is different from the conveyor belt, the rest are similar to the roller type. The belt type is mainly suitable for the transfer of lighter and smaller materials, such as cartons, cartons, various bags, etc.


    (二)、主動裝卸方式是指自動小車自己具有裝卸功能。常見的主動裝卸方式有單面推拉式、雙面推拉式、叉車式[圖(a)]和機器人式[圖(b)]四種。

    2. Active loading and unloading means that the automatic trolley itself has the loading and unloading function. Common active loading and unloading methods include single-sided push-pull, double-sided push-pull, forklift [Figure (a)] and robotic [Figure (b)].

    AGV主動移載方式.jpg AGV Active Transfer Method

    (1)、牽引式: AGV作為牽引動力,通過拖掛帶輪的箱體或容器完成對物料的運送。適合用掛斗和拖車運送物料的場合,如行包運送、化學品運送、廢料收集等。


    (2)、馱舉式: AGV通過馱舉來移載物料,一般移載機構位于AGV車體上方,作業時AGV停在貨物正下方,通過升降機構馱起或降下實現貨物的移載,動作簡單,作業效率高,安全性好。適合多種貨物形式和笨重物體兩地之間往返搬運,也可作為柔性裝配線、加工線使用。常用于車身、車架、集裝箱、大型機件等物體搬運。

       

    (3)、叉式 :叉式AGV與人工叉車在式樣上基本類似,有側叉式、正向叉式、落地叉式、三向叉式等多種車型。叉式AGV基本采用托盤堆放貨物進行作業,目前正隨著物流產業標準托盤的逐步推廣而迅速發展。     

    側叉式:從車的左右兩側移載貨物,因叉起過程重心需由車體來平衡,故車體較笨重,移載重量有限,且能耗高、不經濟。 

       

    (4)、正向叉式:從車體正前方叉起貨物,能適應多種托盤從地面到常規高度范圍貨架的作業場合。特點是貨叉下方沒有支腿,叉車體作業時完全在貨架或站臺之外,對環境無特別的條件要求。但由于平衡的需要,車體較笨重,貨叉突出,安全性有限。

     

    (5)、落地叉式:貨叉在車體后方,能上下升降,落下時在兩條支腿之上,叉間距與標準歐式托盤下的兩個空檔吻合,正好能進入其中叉起托盤貨物。因此,移載過程須倒車才能完成,對于雙面托盤,不能直接放到地面,須放在有一定高度(一般≥100mm),能保證貨叉及下方的兩個支腿同時進入即可。該車型適合在高低差較大的站臺或貨架(牛腿式)之間裝卸貨物,特別是對駛入式巷道、多層貨架(牛腿式)的密集性存儲搬運獨具優勢。缺點是貨叉下方有支腿,倒車過程安全性有局限。常用于各種庫區到車間的物料自動存儲及搬運,如輔料、原料、成品等的自動化物流系統。 

       

    (6)、三向叉式:這種AGV的貨叉能分別向左、向右、向正前方三個方向進行托盤貨物的自動裝卸。適應多種標準托盤,適合巷道內多層貨架或高低差較大的存儲裝卸場合。缺點是車型笨重寬大,行駛區域占用較多空間,作業場地有效利用率低,且AGV結構復雜,成本很高。

     

    (7)、揀選式 :是在傳統人工揀選車的基礎上改造成的自動導引揀選車。作業時,人只要站在AGV揀選臺上,當接到揀選指令后,AGV會按照最優的次序自動行駛,逐一地準確停位在目標位置,升降揀選臺到適合人揀選的高度,人就可以按照車載終端的信息提示,進行揀選,然后確認該項完成,接著AGV會前往下一目標點,繼續下一項揀選,依次進行。常用于低層平庫中巷道貨架的多品種小件貨物場合,如藥品、圖書、檔案、備件等的揀選。

     

    (8)、龍門式: AGV外形類似龍門結構,能全方位行駛,移載過程是通過左右側向伸縮移動貨叉和升降來完成裝卸貨物。作業靈活性強,行駛安全性好。對地面站臺要求簡單,但自身移載機構復雜,適合狹窄區域或苛刻路徑。多用于生產車間,如食品加工的原料運送。


    (9)、機器人式: AGV上裝備機械手,可根據指令自動行駛,準確停位,自動完成抓舉、裝配、裝卸、堆碼、拆垛等一系列作業功能,是一個智能移動式工業機器人。但結構、控制復雜,成本較高。常用于條件特殊、要求高,或某些無人的場合,如輔料自動搭配、危險品自動抓取等。

    (1) Traction type: AGV is used as traction power to complete the transportation of materials by towing a box or container with pulleys. It is suitable for occasions where buckets and trailers are used to transport materials, such as luggage transport, chemical transport, waste collection, etc.

    (2) Piggyback type: AGV transfers materials by piggybacking. Generally, the transfer mechanism is located above the AGV body. During operation, the AGV stops directly under the goods, and the lifting mechanism is used to carry or lower the goods to realize the transfer of goods. Action Simple, efficient and safe. It is suitable for the round-trip transportation of various forms of goods and heavy objects, and can also be used as a flexible assembly line and processing line. It is often used for handling objects such as body, frame, container, and large machine parts.

    (3) Fork type: Fork type AGV is basically similar in style to manual forklift, there are side fork type, forward fork type, floor fork type, three-way fork type and other models. Fork AGV basically uses pallets to stack goods for operation, and is currently developing rapidly with the gradual promotion of standard pallets in the logistics industry.

    Side fork type: The goods are transferred from the left and right sides of the car. Because the center of gravity needs to be balanced by the car body during the forklifting process, the car body is relatively heavy, the transfer weight is limited, and the energy consumption is high and uneconomical.

    (4) Forward fork type: Fork goods from the front of the car body, which can adapt to the operation occasions of various pallets from the ground to the conventional height range of shelves. The characteristic is that there is no outrigger under the fork, and the forklift body is completely outside the shelf or platform during operation, and there are no special requirements for the environment. However, due to the need for balance, the body is relatively heavy, the forks are protruding, and the safety is limited.

    (5) Floor fork type: the fork is at the rear of the car body and can be lifted up and down. When it falls, it is above the two outriggers. The fork spacing is consistent with the two neutral positions under the standard European pallet, and it can just enter into it and lift the pallet. goods. Therefore, the transfer process can only be completed by reversing. For the double-sided pallet, it cannot be placed directly on the ground, but must be placed at a certain height (generally ≥100mm) to ensure that the fork and the two legs below can enter at the same time. This model is suitable for loading and unloading goods between platforms or shelves (corbel type) with large height difference, especially for the intensive storage and handling of drive-in aisles and multi-layer shelves (corbel type). The disadvantage is that there are outriggers under the fork, and the safety of the reversing process is limited. It is often used for automatic storage and handling of materials from various warehouse areas to workshops, such as automatic logistics systems for auxiliary materials, raw materials, and finished products.

    (6) Three-way fork type: The forks of this AGV can automatically load and unload pallet goods in three directions: left, right, and straight ahead. Adapt to a variety of standard pallets, suitable for multi-layer shelves in roadways or storage and loading occasions with large height differences. The disadvantage is that the model is bulky and wide, the driving area takes up a lot of space, the effective utilization rate of the work site is low, and the AGV has a complex structure and high cost.

    (7) Picking type: It is an automatic guided picking vehicle transformed on the basis of the traditional manual picking vehicle. When working, people only need to stand on the AGV picking table. After receiving the picking instruction, the AGV will automatically drive in the optimal order, stop at the target position accurately one by one, and lift the picking table to a height suitable for people to choose. You can follow the information prompts of the on-board terminal to pick, and then confirm the completion of the item, and then the AGV will go to the next target point, continue to pick the next item, and proceed in turn. It is often used in multi-variety small goods occasions in the aisle shelves in low-level flat warehouses, such as the selection of medicines, books, files, spare parts, etc.

    (8) Gantry type: The AGV is similar in shape to the gantry structure, and can travel in all directions. The loading and unloading process is to complete the loading and unloading of goods by moving the forks and lifting and lowering laterally on the left and right sides. The operation flexibility is strong, and the driving safety is good. The requirements for the ground station are simple, but the transfer mechanism is complex, suitable for narrow areas or harsh paths. It is mostly used in the production workshop, such as the delivery of raw materials for food processing.

    (9) Robot type: The AGV is equipped with a manipulator, which can automatically drive according to the instructions, stop accurately, and automatically complete a series of operation functions such as snatch, assembly, loading and unloading, stacking, and depalletizing. It is an intelligent mobile industrial robot. However, the structure and control are complex and the cost is high. It is often used in special conditions, high requirements, or some unmanned occasions, such as automatic matching of accessories, automatic grabbing of dangerous goods, etc.

    鋱羅機器人AGV移載裝置 RJS AGV Transfer Device

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