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  • AGV導航——二維碼導航工作原理 AGV Navigation - How QR Code Navigation Works

    AGV導航——二維碼導航總體設計:該系統由以陀螺儀導航系統、視覺系統、AGV子系統、電源管理系統、傳感器系統和裝置機械結構五部分組成。導航采用陀螺儀導航為主,視覺導航為輔,最大化融合和利用各導航的優勢,提高系統的可靠性和導航精度。

     

    二維碼導航運行原理AGV在接收到工作中心的指令后,由導航系統將其指引至貨物裝載處,裝載完畢后,按照預設指令,其分析起點-終點路徑后,規劃出最佳行走路徑,行走至指定位置。該過程中不斷利用導航系統識別周圍特征標志信息,以實時利用AGV子系統計算分析其所處位置,之后利用無線通信方式發送至工作中心電腦,以管理和規劃工業現場的總體物流運行進度,避免相互干涉,提高運輸效率。

     

      二維碼導航項目技術歸納:

    (1)
    陀螺儀導航與視覺聯合導航:
    本系統采用陀螺儀導航系統專用模塊,主要實現技術為差分定位,并結合工業現場的地圖,利用車載控制系統實時分析系統地圖坐標數據,之后與地圖信息對比以獲取定位信息。 項目采用圖QR碼掃描自適應閾值算法的視覺技術識別運動過程中的關鍵標志物,輔以航位推算系統以達到路徑自動辨識和規劃,從而最終達到對AGV導航的目的。通過視覺定位QR碼技術導航的圖像獲取、攝像機標定、特征提取和深度恢復等過程,以達到對物體的位置精確定位。 

    AGV二維碼導航     AGV QR Code Navigation

    QR碼(二維碼) 

    (2)路徑規劃:AGV運行路徑規劃分為全局規劃和局部規劃。全局規劃中采用切線圖法,即將路徑中關鍵點作為特征點,將該特征點的切線表示弧,這樣可以獲取AGV起始點和目標點的最短路徑,提高AGV路徑進行規劃的速度;局部規劃中采用人工勢場法,其設計思想是將AGV在工業現場作業視為一種抽象人造受力場中的運動,通過建立人工勢場的負梯度方向指向系統的運動控制方向,目標點對AGV產生引力,障礙物對AGV產生斥力,其驅動結果使其在勢場合力作用下控制AGV運動方向并計算AGV位置,為防止工業現場AGV在到達目標位置前陷入局部小點而無法達到預設位置,系統利用模擬退火算法使勢函數跳出局部極小點,以使AGV順利到達目標位置。 

    (3)多任務分解及協調:為解決多個AGV間任務分配、路徑規劃和相互協調,系統采用模糊動態數學模型的方法,該方法基于專家辨識系統的設計思路,將任務分配分解為“最重要、重要、一般、次要”四個等級,并將路徑規劃為“最近、較近、合理、備選”四個等級,之后利用模糊動態數學模型進行建模和分析,輸出最佳的任務分解和路徑規劃。具體應用中,利用工業現場工作中心對多個AGV提前預置任務和目標路徑,提供給系統的初始輸入和輸出,由系統自動完成對任務和路徑的分析,并將指令傳送至各AGV車載控制系統,以達到AGV間的任務協調和路徑選取。需要指出的是,為了解決實際應用過程中由于任務的不斷更新和調整,以及路徑過程中可能出現障礙物等情況,在工作中心中設有一套預測控制系統和報警系統,在滿足單一作業完成的前提下,對工作中心的任務和路徑進行實時建模,以滿足現場變化的需求,當路徑出現死角時,利用報警系統進行現場提示,由現場人員進行介入解決。

    (4)基于視覺的QR碼定位技術:對于二維碼子系統,其中存儲該二維碼正對的地面的坐標信息。AGV通過自身的高分辨率長焦攝像頭對二維碼進行讀取和識別,同時通過二維碼圖像在攝像頭坐標中的旋轉情況,與電子羅盤數據進行融合,可以確定AGV的精確朝向。綜合二維碼編碼的信息和其在圖像中的位置信息,可以對AGV小車進行完整的定位。   

    upfile

    AGV Navigation - QR Code Navigation Overall Design: The system consists of five parts: gyroscope navigation system, vision system, AGV subsystem, power management system, sensor system and device mechanical structure. Navigation mainly uses gyroscope navigation, supplemented by visual navigation, maximizes the integration and utilization of the advantages of each navigation, and improves the reliability and navigation accuracy of the system.


    QR code navigation operation principle: After the AGV receives the instruction from the work center, the navigation system guides it to the cargo loading place. After loading, according to the preset instruction, it analyzes the starting point-destination path and plans the best walking. path, walk to the specified location. In this process, the navigation system is continuously used to identify the surrounding feature sign information, and the AGV subsystem is used to calculate and analyze its location in real time, and then it is sent to the work center computer by wireless communication to manage and plan the overall logistics operation progress of the industrial site to avoid Interfere with each other to improve transportation efficiency.


    Technical summary of QR code navigation project:

    1. Gyroscopic Navigation and Vision Joint Navigation: This system adopts the special module of gyroscope navigation system, the main realization technology is differential positioning, combined with the map of the industrial site, uses the vehicle control system to analyze the system map coordinate data in real time, and then compares it with the map information to obtain location information. The project uses the visual technology of the QR code scanning adaptive threshold algorithm to identify the key markers in the movement process, supplemented by the dead reckoning system to achieve automatic path identification and planning, so as to finally achieve the purpose of AGV navigation. The process of image acquisition, camera calibration, feature extraction and depth recovery through visual positioning QR code technology navigation, in order to achieve accurate positioning of the object's position.

    2. Path planning: AGV operation path planning is divided into global planning and local planning. The tangent diagram method is used in the global planning, that is, the key points in the path are used as feature points, and the tangent of the feature point represents the arc, so that the shortest path between the starting point and the target point of the AGV can be obtained, and the speed of the AGV path planning can be improved; in local planning Using the artificial potential field method, the design idea is to regard the AGV's operation in the industrial field as a motion in an abstract artificial force field. By establishing the negative gradient direction of the artificial potential field, it points to the motion control direction of the system, and the target point generates Gravity, obstacles produce repulsive force on AGV, and the driving result makes it control the direction of AGV movement and calculate the position of AGV under the action of potential field force, in order to prevent the AGV from falling into a local small point before reaching the target position in the industrial field and unable to reach the preset position, The system uses the simulated annealing algorithm to make the potential function jump out of the local minimum point, so that the AGV can reach the target position smoothly.

    3. Multi-task decomposition and coordination: In order to solve the task allocation, path planning and mutual coordination among multiple AGVs, the system adopts the method of fuzzy dynamic mathematical model. There are four levels of "important, important, general, and minor", and the path is planned into four levels of "nearest, nearer, reasonable, and alternative", and then the fuzzy dynamic mathematical model is used for modeling and analysis, and the best task is output. Decomposition and path planning. In specific applications, the industrial field work center is used to preset tasks and target paths for multiple AGVs in advance, and provide initial input and output to the system. The system automatically completes the analysis of tasks and paths, and transmits the instructions to each AGV vehicle-mounted control. system to achieve task coordination and path selection between AGVs. It should be pointed out that, in order to solve the situation of continuous update and adjustment of tasks and possible obstacles in the process of the actual application process, there is a set of predictive control system and alarm system in the work center. Under the premise, the tasks and paths of the work center are modeled in real time to meet the needs of on-site changes. When there is a dead angle on the path, the alarm system is used to prompt on-site, and the on-site personnel will intervene to solve the problem.

    4. Vision-based QR code positioning technology: For the two-dimensional code subsystem, the coordinate information of the ground facing the two-dimensional code is stored. The AGV reads and recognizes the QR code through its own high-resolution telephoto camera. At the same time, the rotation of the QR code image in the camera coordinates is combined with the electronic compass data to determine the precise orientation of the AGV. Combining the information encoded by the QR code and its position information in the image, the AGV car can be completely positioned.


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