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  • AGV導引方式對比 Comparison of AGV Guidance Methods

    AGV智能解決方案.jpg  AGV Intelligent Solutions

    001-----慣性導引

    優點:慣性導引是一項成熟、可靠的導引技術,具有可靠性高,短期精度高,自主性強的優點,但是具有不可避免的缺點。

    缺點:有累計誤差,導致其長期導引精度不夠。(通過其他技術進行校正。視覺導引系統,進行它的準確定位來校正慣性導航系統)

    慣性導航是在AGV上安裝陀螺儀,在行駛區域的地面上安裝定位塊,AGV可通過對陀螺儀偏差信號的計算及地面定位塊信號的采集來確定自身的位置和方向,從而實現導引。
    此項技術在軍方較早運用,其主要優點是技術先進,定位準確性高,靈活性強,便于組合和兼容,適用領域廣,已被國外的許多AGV生產廠家采用。其缺點是制造成本較高,導引的精度和可靠性與陀螺儀的制造精度及使用壽命密切相關。

    001-----Inertial guidance

    Advantages: Inertial guidance is a mature and reliable guidance technology, which has the advantages of high reliability, high short-term accuracy and strong autonomy, but it has inevitable shortcomings.

    Disadvantage: There are accumulated errors, resulting in insufficient long-term guidance accuracy. (Correction by other techniques. Vision guidance system, correcting the inertial navigation system for its accurate positioning)

    Inertial navigation is to install a gyroscope on the AGV and install a positioning block on the ground in the driving area. The AGV can determine its own position and direction through the calculation of the gyroscope deviation signal and the acquisition of the ground positioning block signal, so as to achieve guidance.

    This technology was used in the military earlier, and its main advantages are advanced technology, high positioning accuracy, strong flexibility, easy combination and compatibility, and a wide range of applications. It has been adopted by many foreign AGV manufacturers. The disadvantage is that the manufacturing cost is high, and the accuracy and reliability of the guidance are closely related to the manufacturing accuracy and service life of the gyroscope.

     

    002------電磁導航

    電磁導航原理:電磁導航是較為傳統的導航方式之一,目前仍被許多系統采用,它是在AGV的行駛路徑上埋設金屬線,并在金屬線上加載導引頻率,通過對導引頻率的識別來實現AGV的導航。
    電磁導航優點:導引線隱蔽,不易污染和破損,導引原理簡單而可靠,便于控制通訊,對聲光無干擾,投資成本比激光導航低很多;
    電磁導航缺點:改變或擴充路徑較麻煩,導引線鋪設相對困難。

    電磁導引目前仍被許多系統采用,它是在agv的行駛路徑上埋設金屬線,并在金屬線加載導引頻率,通過對導引頻率的識別來實現agv的導引。

    其主要優點是引線隱蔽,不易污染和破損,導引原理簡單而可靠,便于控制和通訊,對聲光無干擾,制造成本較低。

    缺點是路徑難以更改擴展,對復雜路徑的局限性大。

    002------ Electromagnetic Navigation

    Principle of electromagnetic navigation: Electromagnetic navigation is one of the more traditional navigation methods, which is still used by many systems. It embeds a metal wire on the driving path of the AGV, and loads the guide frequency on the metal wire. Identification to achieve AGV navigation.

    Advantages of electromagnetic navigation: the guide wire is concealed, not easy to be polluted and damaged, the guiding principle is simple and reliable, easy to control communication, no interference to sound and light, and the investment cost is much lower than that of laser navigation;

    Disadvantages of electromagnetic navigation: It is troublesome to change or expand the path, and it is relatively difficult to lay the guide wire.

    Electromagnetic guidance is still used in many systems. It embeds metal wires on the driving path of agv, and loads the metal wire with a guiding frequency, and realizes the guidance of agv through the identification of the guiding frequency.

    Its main advantages are that the lead wire is concealed, not easy to be polluted and damaged, the guiding principle is simple and reliable, easy to control and communicate, no interference to sound and light, and low manufacturing cost.

    The disadvantage is that the path is difficult to change and expand, and it has great limitations on complex paths.


    003-----磁帶導航
    磁帶導航原理:磁帶導航技術與電磁導航相近,不同之處在于采用了在路面上貼磁帶替代在地面下埋設金屬線,通過磁帶感應信號實現導引。
    磁帶導航優點:AGV定位精確,磁帶導航靈活性比較好,改變或擴充路徑較容易,磁帶鋪設也相對簡單,導引原理簡單而可靠,便于控制通訊,對聲光無干擾,投資成本比激光導航低很多;
    磁帶導航缺點:磁帶需要維護,要及時更換損壞嚴重磁帶,不過磁帶更換簡單方便,成本較低。但此導引方式易受環路周圍金屬物質的干擾,對磁帶的機械損傷極為敏感,因此導引的可靠性受外界影響較大。

    003-----Tape Navigation

    The principle of tape navigation: The tape navigation technology is similar to the electromagnetic navigation, the difference is that the tape is pasted on the road instead of burying the metal wire under the ground, and the guidance is realized by the tape induction signal.

    Advantages of tape navigation: AGV positioning is accurate, the flexibility of tape navigation is better, it is easier to change or expand the path, the tape laying is relatively simple, the guiding principle is simple and reliable, easy to control communication, no interference to sound and light, and the investment cost is higher than that of laser navigation. much lower;

    Disadvantages of tape navigation: The tape needs maintenance, and the severely damaged tape needs to be replaced in time, but the replacement of the tape is simple and convenient, and the cost is low. However, this guiding method is easily disturbed by metal substances around the loop, and is extremely sensitive to the mechanical damage of the magnetic tape, so the reliability of the guiding is greatly affected by the outside world.


    004-----視覺導航
    視覺導航原理:視覺導航是在AGV的行駛路徑上涂刷與地面顏色反差大的油漆或粘貼顏色反差大的色帶,在AGV上安裝有攝圖傳感器將不斷拍攝的圖片與存儲圖片進行對比,偏移量信號輸出給驅動控制系統,控制系統經過計算糾正AGV的行走方向,實現AGV的導航。
    視覺導航優點:AGV定位精確,視覺導航靈活性比較好,改變或擴充路徑也較容易,路徑鋪設也相對簡單,導引原理同樣簡單而可靠,便于控制通訊,對聲光無干擾,投資成本比激光導航同樣低很多,但比磁帶導航稍貴;
    視覺導航缺點:路徑同樣需要維護,不過維護也較簡單方便,成本也較低。對色帶的污染和機械磨損十分敏感,對環境要求過高,導引可靠性較差,且很難實現精確定位。

    004-----Visual Navigation

    Principle of visual navigation: Visual navigation is to paint paint with a large color contrast with the ground or paste a color tape with a large color contrast on the AGV's driving path. A photo sensor is installed on the AGV to compare the continuously captured pictures with the stored pictures. The offset signal is output to the drive control system, and the control system corrects the walking direction of the AGV through calculation to realize the navigation of the AGV.

    Advantages of visual navigation: AGV positioning is accurate, the flexibility of visual navigation is better, it is easier to change or expand the path, the path laying is relatively simple, the guiding principle is also simple and reliable, easy to control communication, no interference to sound and light, and investment cost is relatively low. Laser navigation is also much lower, but slightly more expensive than tape navigation;

    Disadvantages of visual navigation: The path also requires maintenance, but the maintenance is simpler and more convenient and the cost is lower. It is very sensitive to the contamination and mechanical wear of the ribbon, has high environmental requirements, poor guidance reliability, and is difficult to achieve precise positioning.


    005------激光導航
    激光導航原理:激光導航是在AGV行駛路徑的周圍安裝位置精確的反射板,AGV通過發射激光束,同時采集由反射板反射的激光束,來確定其當前的位置和方向。
    AGV的初始位置計算——AGV小車停止不動;激光掃描器至少可測得4條光束,即至少“看到”4塊反射板;已知所有反射板的精確位置(X,Y);
    AGV的連續位置計算——根據運動模型估算小車的當前位置,根據估算的新位置關聯反射板,根據關聯的反射板修正自身位置,據此修正AGV下一步動作。 
    激光導航優點:AGV定位精確,地面無需其它定位設施;行駛路徑可靈活改變;
    激光導航缺點:由于控制復雜及激光技術昂貴投資成本較高,反射片與AGV激光傳感器之間不能有障礙物,不適合空中有物流影響的場合。

    005------Laser Navigation

    Principle of laser navigation: Laser navigation is to install a reflector with a precise position around the AGV's driving path. The AGV determines its current position and direction by emitting a laser beam and collecting the laser beam reflected by the reflector at the same time.

    The initial position calculation of the AGV - the AGV car is stationary; the laser scanner can measure at least 4 beams, that is, at least "see" 4 reflectors; the precise positions (X, Y) of all reflectors are known;

    Continuous position calculation of AGV - estimate the current position of the car according to the motion model, associate the reflector according to the estimated new position, correct its own position according to the associated reflector, and correct the next action of the AGV accordingly.

    Advantages of laser navigation: AGV positioning is accurate, no other positioning facilities are required on the ground; the driving path can be flexibly changed;

    Disadvantages of laser navigation: Due to the complex control and high investment cost of laser technology, there should be no obstacles between the reflective sheet and the AGV laser sensor, which is not suitable for occasions where there are logistics effects in the air.

     

    006-----RFID導航(電子標簽)

    在AGV車頭部安裝一個低頻遠距離RFID讀卡系統,然后在軌道節點處固定一個電子標簽,賦予每個電子標簽一個ID號和定義,令AGV根據ID號的特定指令做出相對應的動作。
    優點是無需鋪線,結構簡單,成本低,靈活性強,可隨意改變路徑,而且更容易實現,能準確定位。缺點對RFID硬件要求高。

    006-----RFID Navigation (electronic label)

    A low-frequency long-distance RFID card reader system is installed on the head of the AGV, and then an electronic tag is fixed at the track node, and each electronic tag is given an ID number and definition, so that the AGV can make corresponding actions according to the specific instructions of the ID number. .

    The advantages are that there is no need to lay lines, the structure is simple, the cost is low, the flexibility is strong, the path can be changed at will, and it is easier to implement and can accurately locate. Disadvantages High requirements for RFID hardware.


    007-----光電導航

    光學導航在AGV的行駛路徑上涂漆或粘貼色帶,通過對攝像機采入的色帶圖象信號進行簡單處理而實現導航。

    優點:靈活性比較好,地面路線設置簡單易行。

    缺點:對色帶的污染和機械磨損十分敏感,對環境要求過高,導航可靠性較差,且很難實現精確定位。

    007-----Photoelectric Navigation

    Optical navigation paints or sticks ribbons on the driving path of the AGV, and realizes navigation by simply processing the ribbon image signals collected by the camera.

    Advantages: The flexibility is relatively good, and the ground route setting is simple and easy.

    Disadvantages: It is very sensitive to the contamination and mechanical wear of the ribbon, the environmental requirements are too high, the navigation reliability is poor, and it is difficult to achieve precise positioning.


    008-----直接坐標導引技術
    用定位塊將AGV的行駛區域分成若干坐標小區域,通過對小區域的計數實現導引,一般有光電式(將坐標小區域以兩種顏色劃分,通過光電器件計數)和電磁式(將坐標小區域以金屬塊或磁塊劃分,通過電磁感應器件計數)兩種形式,其優點是可以實現路徑的修改,導引的可靠性好,對環境無特別要求。缺點是地面測量安裝復雜,工作量大,導引精度和定位精度較低,且無法滿足復雜路徑的要求。

    008-----Direct Coordinate Guidance Technology

    The AGV's driving area is divided into several small coordinate areas by the positioning block, and the guidance is realized by counting the small areas. Generally, there are photoelectric type (divide the small coordinate area into two colors and count by photoelectric devices) and electromagnetic type (the coordinate The small area is divided into metal blocks or magnetic blocks, and counted by electromagnetic induction devices. The disadvantage is that the ground measurement installation is complicated, the workload is large, the guidance accuracy and positioning accuracy are low, and it cannot meet the requirements of complex paths.



    009----圖象識別導引技術


    對AGV行駛區域的環境進行圖象識別,實現智能行駛,這是一種具有巨大潛力的導引技術,此項技術已被少數國家的軍方采用,將其應用到AGV上還只停留在研究中,目前還未出現采用此類技術的實用型AGV。
    可以想象,圖象識別技術與激光導引技術相結合將會為自動化工程提供意想不到的可能,如導引的精確性和可靠性,行駛的安全性,智能化的記憶識別等都將更加完美。

    009----Image Recognition Guidance Technology

    Image recognition of the environment in the driving area of AGV to realize intelligent driving Among them, there is no practical AGV using such technology yet.

    It is conceivable that the combination of image recognition technology and laser guidance technology will provide unexpected possibilities for automation engineering, such as the accuracy and reliability of guidance, driving safety, and intelligent memory recognition will be more perfect. .


    對幾種常用的導引方式做簡單的比較如下圖:

    A simple comparison of several commonly used guidance methods is as follows:

    upfile

    對國外十幾家AGV公司27個系列產品所采用的主要導向技術的統計結果顯示,電磁感應、慣性導航、光學檢測、位置設定、激光檢測、圖像識別所占比例分別為32.3%、27.8%、16.9%、13.8%、7.69%和1.54%。其中,電磁感應導向技術的應用比例最高,這表明該項技術已經十分成熟。而機器視覺導向技術應用較少,說明該項技術還需要深入研究和不斷完善。另外,自主導航技術仍然處在研究階段,還有許多技術問題需要解決。

    The statistical results of the main guidance technologies adopted by 27 series of products of more than a dozen foreign AGV companies show that the proportions of electromagnetic induction, inertial navigation, optical detection, position setting, laser detection and image recognition are 32.3% and 27.8% respectively. , 16.9%, 13.8%, 7.69% and 1.54%. Among them, the application ratio of electromagnetic induction guidance technology is the highest, which shows that this technology is very mature. However, the application of machine vision-oriented technology is less, indicating that this technology still needs in-depth research and continuous improvement. In addition, autonomous navigation technology is still in the research stage, and there are still many technical problems to be solved.

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