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  • 如何區分AGV和AGC How to Distinguish Between AGV and AGC

    一、AGV與AGC的定義

    AGV是自動導引運輸車(Automated Guided Vehicle)的英文縮寫,指裝備有電磁或光學等自動導引裝置,能夠沿規定的導引路徑行駛,具有安全保護以及各種移載功能的運輸車,AGV屬于輪式移動機器人(WMR――Wheeled Mobile Robot)的范疇。

    AGC(Automated Guided Cart),屬于AGV的一類,但由于具有獨特的功能與用途,將它單獨出來講。AGC是以日本為代表的簡易型AGV技術,該技術追求的是簡單實用,極力讓用戶在最短的時間內收回投資成本。該類AGV完全結合簡單的生產應用場合(單一的路徑,固定的流程),AGC只是用來進行搬運,并不強調AGV的自動裝卸功能。由于日本的基礎工業發達,AGC生產企業能夠為AGC配置上幾乎簡單得不能再簡單的功能器件,使AGC的成本幾乎降到了極限。

    1. Definition of AGV and AGC

    AGV is the English abbreviation of Automated Guided Vehicle, which refers to a transport vehicle equipped with automatic guidance devices such as electromagnetic or optical, which can travel along a prescribed guiding path, and has safety protection and various transfer functions. AGV belongs to the category of Wheeled Mobile Robot (WMR-Wheeled Mobile Robot).

    AGC (Automated Guided Cart), belongs to a category of AGV, but because of its unique functions and uses, it will be discussed separately. AGC is a simple AGV technology represented by Japan. The technology pursues simplicity and practicality, and strives to allow users to recover their investment costs in the shortest possible time. This type of AGV is completely combined with simple production applications (single path, fixed process), AGC is only used for handling, and does not emphasize the automatic loading and unloading function of AGV. Due to the developed basic industry in Japan, AGC manufacturers can configure AGC with functional devices that are almost as simple as they can be, making the cost of AGC almost reduced to the limit.


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    二、AGV與AGC全方位對比


    1、驅動方式不同  

    在工業現場應用的AGV,考慮到穩定可靠等因素重要性,AGV一般采用伺服電機驅動,電機與輪系為一體式結構,價格較貴。而AGC只滿足簡單物流輸送要求,一般采用普通直流電機驅動,價格較低。

    2、定位精度不同 

    AGV定位精度標準為±10mm,可以滿足AGV上的輸送機與地面的輸送機對接的要求。

    AGC定位精度標準為±20mm,無法保證與地面輸送機自動精確定位對接。

    3、速度控制方式不同 

    AGV在直線段和彎道段的速度不同,可以保證在彎道時AGV搭載的貨物不會因為離心力大而傾覆。

    AGC在直線段和彎道段的速度相同。若同為高速,則在彎道時會非常危險。若同為低速,則很難滿足工作節拍要求。一般廠家在使用AGC運行路線的彎道段地面上安裝了一段角鋼,用來強行矯正AGC在轉彎時輪子的運行軌跡,否則AGC會偏離運行路線。

    4、非接觸式障礙探測裝置不同

    AGV采用漫反射式激光傳感器作為接近式障礙探測裝置,一般為原裝進口,有效探測距離為4m,對人員、設備均有非常良好的探測效果。AGC采用紅外傳感器作為接近式障礙探測裝置,因為紅外傳感器對不同物體的探測距離由該物體的反射能力決定(例如金屬物體的反射能力比人員高),所以無法保證達到所標定的探測距離(2m),為了保證探測到障礙物時有足夠的剎車距離,AGC的運行速度一般較低。

    5、與地面輸送設備的互鎖

    國家標準《GB/T 20721—2006 自動導引車通用技術條件》第4.3.2 條款規定,“在自動導引車上安裝與地面移載裝置的連鎖功能。在移載過程中任意一方的意外故障,都應通知對方,并及時處理,防止貨物或設備的損壞。發生移載故障后,在排除故障之前,系統應維持停止狀態”。

    AGV與地面輸送設備之間采用紅外對射開關的方式進行互鎖,當AGV到達移載位置并且互鎖成功時,AGV的控制臺與地面輸送設備的控制臺之間進行通信,AGV才能與地面輸送設備進行移載。移載結束后,AGV控制臺與地面設備控制臺再次通信,解除互鎖,AGV才能夠離開此移載位置,去執行下一個任務。

    AGC因為定位精度不夠,無法與地面輸送設備進行自動移載,沒有互鎖功能。

    6、控制臺

    國家標準《GB/T 20721—2006 自動導引車通用技術條件》第4.3.3 C)條款規定,“在自動導引車與控制臺間應該具有調度和控制功能”。

    AGV采用中央控制臺集中控制的方式,在中央控制臺能夠實時動畫顯示每臺AGV的當前狀態,中央控制臺能夠對每臺AGV分別調度,并且能夠調度AGV之間避免發生碰撞。

    有的AGC系統雖然有中央控制臺,但不能做到對每臺AGC進行分別調度,也不能調度AGC之間避碰。

    7、與上層系統的連接

    AGV作為自動運行設備,實質上是客戶的系統的一個子系統,雖然AGV能夠作為獨立的系統運行,但必須接受客戶的指令去完成某項工作,待工作完成后向客戶的系統回報本項任務完成,并接受下一個任務。也就是說AGV與客戶的系統(對AGV系統而言是上層系統)之間必須連接,進行數據的交換。

    AGC不能夠與上層系統進行連接(所有AGC實例均可證明這一點),這是AGV與AGC最關鍵的差別。

    2. All-round comparison between AGV and AGC

    (1) Different driving methods

    Considering the importance of stability and reliability for AGVs used in industrial fields, AGVs are generally driven by servo motors, and the motor and the wheel train are integrated, which is expensive. However, AGC only meets the requirements of simple logistics and transportation, and is generally driven by ordinary DC motors, and the price is low.

    (2) Different positioning accuracy

    The AGV positioning accuracy standard is ±10mm, which can meet the requirements of docking between the conveyor on the AGV and the conveyor on the ground.

    The AGC positioning accuracy standard is ±20mm, which cannot guarantee automatic and precise positioning and docking with the ground conveyor.

    (3) Different speed control methods

    The speed of the AGV in the straight section and the curved section is different, which can ensure that the goods carried by the AGV will not overturn due to the large centrifugal force during the curve.

    The speed of the AGC is the same in straight and curved sections. If both are at high speed, it will be very dangerous when cornering. If the speed is both low, it is difficult to meet the work rhythm requirements. Generally, manufacturers install a section of angle steel on the ground of the curved section of the AGC running route to forcibly correct the running track of the wheels of the AGC when turning, otherwise the AGC will deviate from the running route.

    (4) Different non-contact obstacle detection devices

    The AGV uses a diffuse reflection laser sensor as a proximity obstacle detection device, which is generally imported, and the effective detection distance is 4m, which has a very good detection effect on personnel and equipment. AGC uses infrared sensor as a proximity obstacle detection device, because the detection distance of infrared sensor to different objects is determined by the reflection ability of the object (for example, the reflection ability of metal objects is higher than that of people), so it cannot guarantee to reach the calibrated detection distance (2m ), in order to ensure sufficient braking distance when an obstacle is detected, the running speed of AGC is generally low.

    (5) Interlock with ground conveying equipment

    Clause 4.3.2 of the national standard "GB/T 20721-2006 General Technical Conditions for Automatic Guided Vehicles" stipulates that "the interlocking function with the ground transfer device is installed on the automatic guided vehicle. In case of failure, the other party should be notified and dealt with in time to prevent damage to the goods or equipment. After a transfer failure occurs, the system should remain in a stopped state until the failure is eliminated.”

    The AGV and the ground conveying equipment are interlocked by means of an infrared beam switch. When the AGV reaches the transfer position and the interlock is successful, the AGV's console and the ground conveying equipment's console communicate with each other, so that the AGV can communicate with the ground. Transfer equipment for transfer. After the transfer is completed, the AGV console communicates with the ground equipment console again to release the interlock, and the AGV can leave the transfer position to perform the next task.

    Because the positioning accuracy of the AGC is not enough, it cannot be automatically transferred with the ground conveying equipment, and there is no interlocking function.

    (6) Console

    翻console

    Clause 4.3.3 C) of the national standard "GB/T 20721-2006 General Technical Conditions for Automatic Guided Vehicles" stipulates that "there should be scheduling and control functions between the automatic guided vehicle and the console".

    The AGV adopts the centralized control method of the central console. The current status of each AGV can be displayed in real-time animation in the central console. The central console can schedule each AGV separately, and can schedule AGVs to avoid collisions.

    Although some AGC systems have a central console, they cannot schedule each AGC separately, nor can they schedule collisions between AGCs.

    (7) Connection to higher-level systems

    As an automatic operation device, AGV is essentially a subsystem of the customer's system. Although AGV can operate as an independent system, it must accept the customer's instructions to complete a certain work, and report the task to the customer's system after the work is completed. Done, and accept the next mission. That is to say, the AGV and the customer's system (the upper-layer system for the AGV system) must be connected to exchange data.

    AGC cannot connect with the upper-layer system (all AGC instances can prove this), which is the most critical difference between AGV and AGC.

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    三、什么情況下選擇AGV & AGC

    AGV的控制比較復雜,從行走姿態到多車的調度管理都有特殊的算法。而AGC卻簡單得多,一個PLC就可能搞定。由于存在著功能和價格上的明顯差異,所以用戶在實施項目前,應仔細分析需求,以確定AGV或AGC。

    結合兩者的技術特性,一般在同時滿足以下幾種情況的時候,可以選擇AGC。

    1、單一的路徑。即AGV運行的環路中沒有分支,單一的環路。

    2、固定的流程。即AGV每個任務循環都重復同樣的動作,即每個循環停車點的位置順序是不變的。如:AGV在循環中A,B,C點三點都可能需要停車,那么A,B,C就是AGV停車的順序,AGV不可能直接從A點直接到C點,在B點無論有無工作都要停車。當然固定的流程是指預設的流程,可以有多個。但不管怎樣,流程都是人為預知的,是預先設定的,而不是上位計算機根據調度策略的計算所得。

    3、對AGV的導引及定位精度要求不高,只需AGV將貨物運送到大致的位置即可。

    4、不需要移載機構,通常是由人工裝載、卸載或采用拖拽式AGC。

    除此之外,對于運行的環路中有多個分支、多個環路、有合流、分流的復雜路徑,多變的流程,較高的定位要求,需完成較復雜的裝卸任務的情況下,就應該選擇AGV。

    一套優質的AGV系統應當具備以下幾個條件:高質量的車身結構及機械、電子、通訊配套設施,易操作、易配置、易擴展且功能強大的控制系統,精密的定位系統,強大的驅動系統,可靠的安全系統,能有美觀的外形就更好了。 

    3. Under what circumstances to choose AGV & AGC

    The control of AGV is more complicated, and there are special algorithms from walking posture to multi-vehicle scheduling management. The AGC is much simpler, and a PLC may do it. Due to the obvious differences in function and price, users should carefully analyze the requirements to determine the AGV or AGC before implementing the project.

    Combining the technical characteristics of the two, generally when the following conditions are met at the same time, AGC can be selected.

    (1) A single path. That is, there are no branches in the loop in which the AGV operates, but a single loop.

    (2) Fixed process. That is, the AGV repeats the same action for each task cycle, that is, the position sequence of each cycle parking point is unchanged. For example: AGV may need to stop at three points A, B, and C in the cycle, then A, B, and C are the order of AGV parking. It is impossible for AGV to go directly from point A to point C, regardless of whether there is work at point B All parking. Of course, a fixed process refers to a preset process, and there can be multiple ones. But in any case, the process is predicted by humans and is preset, not calculated by the upper computer according to the scheduling strategy.

    (3) The guidance and positioning accuracy of the AGV is not high, and the AGV only needs to transport the goods to the approximate location.

    (4) No transfer mechanism is required, usually manual loading, unloading or drag-type AGC.

    In addition, when there are multiple branches, multiple loops, complex paths with confluence and diversion in the running loop, changeable processes, high positioning requirements, and more complex loading and unloading tasks need to be completed , you should choose AGV.

    A high-quality AGV system should have the following conditions: high-quality body structure and mechanical, electronic, and communication facilities, easy-to-operate, easy-to-configure, easy-to-expand and powerful control systems, precise positioning systems, and powerful drives system, reliable security system, it is better to have a beautiful appearance.

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